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Has anyone ever grafted several Peyote buds on the tips of a large purchase line sildalist, multi-branched San Pedro? It would probably look something akin to a scraggly X-mas tree generic 120mg sildalist with visa, with a general conical shape order sildalist master card, but a dozen or so thick arms, each tipped with a large cluster of bulging buttons. Use small ceramic pots 5 x 5 cm (2 x 2 inch) since they allow soil to dry out completely (after germination) and prevent root rot. Place a small piece of cotton over the pots drainage hole and pull a few strands through to act as a wick. When you first plant the seeds, you should also top water once with a fine mist water sprayer. Place the lid on the container and place it outside (April - July) or under artificial lights (For an earlier start indoors). The Tupperware creates a mini greenhouse, and should be kept closed except for a daily check on the seeds progress (which allows some necessary air circulation) until the seeds germinate. They don’t need any additional watering or misting during this time (unless for some reason the water level in the container drops below 1/16 inch). Also be careful that the temperature isn’t too hot, as this can cook the seedlings. After they have sprouted, replace the Tupperware lid with a piece of stretched muslin secured with string or a rubber band. This will allow air circulation, which can be increased by placing a fan above the container. If they are a reddish or brown color, they are receiving too much light, and additional pieces of muslin must be placed over the top of the container to shade them. When the seedlings have germinated, place a thin layer of very fine aquarium gravel on the surface of the soil. This gravel will help to support the new seedlings and protect the surface from drying out too quickly. Be careful to gently scoop out any green moss-like growth that might appear because of high humidity. After four to five months (when spines have formed on seedlings) remove the muslin shading for one or two hours a day to give the seedlings more light. Seedlings should be brought inside for their first winter, and kept moist (they cant handle very cold weather). Also note: The use of some sort of fungicide when germinating cacti seeds is almost mandatory due to the high humidity levels involved. I have heard reports that the fungicides Daconil and Consan 20 can cause reduced germination rates, and are not recommended. I have heard a recommendation for the brand name Chinosal, but have not used it personally. Fluorescent lighting should be placed 12 - 15 inches (28 - 35 cm) from the top of the plants. High Intensity Discharge Bulbs should be placed considerably further away (depending on wattage). Plants do much better if the day length is kept more or less constant, depending of course on the season. Most plants grow best if the light, dark period matches that of their native habitats. When using artificial lights, be sure and use reflectors to catch and concentrate as much light as you can on the individual plants. For maximum growth, your plants should be rotated about every two weeks to assure even illumination. Cactus, like most plants are more sensitive to certain frequencies (colors) of light. For best results use a grow light type of tube for fluorescent lights, or for killer results, step up to a metal halide. These fixtures have proven to work well in an indoor environment as they have been used by “closet” growers successfully for years. Especially if the plant is over watered, any part may be susceptible to molds or rot. If the roots are infected, then most probably the core is also and the plant is lost. If an above ground part of your plant is affected, the area should be cut out with a sharp knife to remove any infected matter. If any of the roots are affected then the plant should be un-potted and thoroughly cleaned. The plant should then be repotted in pure sand and kept dry at a temperature between 64 - 70 degrees F. Cactus are tough and are designed to withstand long periods of drought, they should start growing again when healed and watered. Usually the only pests that may plague your Cactus collection are scale insects belonging to the superfamily Coccoidea, mealy bugs, and nematodes. Of interesting note, one species of scale is intentually grown on Opuntia Cactus so that their eggs can be harvested and made into a red dye. An environmentally friendly method of controlling scale is to spray the plants with a mixture of rubbing alcohol and nicotine. The infected soil should then be sterilized or discarded, and all infected matter should be burned. It can be found at many nurseries that specialize in cacti and succulents, and you can raise it at home. Take a length of cactus, six inches per person, and carefully cut away the spine areoles. Squeeze the mush through cheesecloth, to get the liquid out, and discard the contents of the cheesecloth. Fasten your seatbelts, extinguish all smoking materials, put your seat backs and tray tables in their full upright and locked position, and enjoy your flight. Another variation is to add a scoop or two of icecream per person to the milk to make a mescaline milkshake. It gives a pleasant feeling of well-being just like being high on pain pills: warm, drowsy, a tiny bit itchy. The only way to get anywhere near one’s money’s worth is to shoot it (unless one comes across snortable stuff like China White, almost-pure powder heroin). The first time the user tries it he or she should start out with a tiny bit and go up from there until the user gets an idea of what a good dose is. It’s a good idea to always inject half of the dose and wait a minute (leaving the needle in) to see how it feels and then inject the rest. Injecting Heroin: This information is only for people who are mature enough to respect the dangers involved with injecting heroin. Items needed: -Alcohol swabs are available in a box of abbout 100 for at Wal-mart. In my area a chunk is about the size of 2 tic-tac candies side-by-side and works just fine. The syringe is used to suck up about 50-75 units of water and squirt it into the spoon.
The author wishes to thank the many colleagues discount sildalist 120mg with visa, past and present generic sildalist 120mg with visa, who contributed to the discussion and learnings summarised here discount generic sildalist canada, in particular Seng Cheng, Canwen Jiang, Richard Labaudiniere,` Chris Adams and Chris- tine Bulawa. Welsh, in The Online Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, 2013. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry 2011 Annual Data Report to the Center Directors, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Bethesda, Maryland, 2012. Scriver, The metabolic & molecular bases of inherited disease, McGraw- Hill, New York, 8th edn, 2001. Boyle, in 26th Annula North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference, Orlando, Florida, 2012. The rst of these classes can be cat- egorised as one that directly aﬀects the functional mechanics of muscle operation, i. Together these diseases place a signicant patient care and economic burden on society, both on the suﬀerers and their families, as well as the various national healthcare systems. Because many of these diseases have a genetic basis and are oen poorly characterised, current symptomatic treatments have met with limited success, and curative approaches have so far not proven to be generally viable. In recent years, however, several factors have combined to give renewed hope to suﬀerers of rare neuromuscular disease. The rst of these is an enhanced understanding of the underlying mechanisms, be they genetic, biochemical or physiological, at the heart of the disease, although it should be noted that this does not necessarily mean that a unique molecular target has been identied for a particular disease. The third and perhaps most signicant change that has proved pivotal is a paradigm shi within the drug discovery industry (i. This has arisen largely due to an increasing awareness of the heterogeneity of most diseases, and a resul- tant move towards stratied (and more ‘personalised’) medicine, relying on the characterisation and treatment of smaller patient sub-populations, oen utilising specic biomarkers. While the focus of this review is on the development of small-molecule thera- peutic agents (i. Arrows mark the dates of rst publications relating to dystrophin (1982)4 and its autosomal homologue utrophin (1992). Analysis of the data in more detail would be expected to establish why this urry in activity occurred, but it may well be connected with the fact that much of the work relating to the identication of the dystrophin gene, and the protein product itself, occurred only a few years beforehand in the later 1980s, as well as the identication of utrophin, the autosomal homologue of dystrophin in View Online 260 Chapter 11 Figure 11. Given the genetic nature of the disease, its relatively poorly understood nature from a biochemical/molecular perspective and (as a result) fewer specically dened molecular targets which could be considered for pharmacological intervention, this paucity is not entirely surprising. By contrast, publication metrics plotted for references containing the term ‘spinal muscular atrophy’ have a much steeper curve (Figure 11. The major inexion point again appears to take place around 1990, which View Online Drug Discovery Approaches for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases 261 was when much of the seminal work describing the genetic basis for the disease was published. Interestingly this curve shape is largely mirrored by the patent application/publication and compound disclosure metrics. Indeed, the global market for muscular dystrophy therapeutics is signicant, and has been estimated as potentially reaching levels in excess of $1 bn, assuming pricing models used in other orphan disease indications are applied. In an increasingly competitive industry it is therefore easy to appreciate the continued shi of the phar- maceutical industry towards orphan and rare diseases. Suﬀerers are aﬄicted by progressive muscle degeneration, and as a result are usually conned to a wheelchair before their early teenage years. Some now live to their late 20s, whereas in the past survival into the third decade of life was rare. Likewise, premature stop codon (read-through) therapies will have applicability limited to a specic patient sub-population for a similar reason. This is a truncated form which arises due to in-frame deletions or mutations, but critically it still retains suﬃcient function to allow a reasonably normal lifespan, with some suﬀerers living until their 60s. In this role, as a kind of molecular ‘shock absorber’, it connects the external cell membrane (called the sarcolemma) to the internal actin cytoskeleton and provides protection from the mechanical stresses placed upon muscle during exercise-induced contraction and extension. As a result of this the dystrophin structural link between the sarcolemma and the internal cyto- skeletal components of the muscle is absent; accordingly extension of the muscle results in a loss of synchronisation between the inner and outer structures, and this is followed by physical damage to, and degradation of, the aﬀected tissue. Even though this type of trauma will stimulate the body’s natural repair systems, the continued lack of dystrophin eventually results in this repair–regeneration process becoming cyclical, with extensive inam- mation, brosis and eventual loss of muscle integrity as the muscle bre gets replaced by adipose and connective tissue. Gradually as the muscle loses structure its function is also inevitably degraded and eventually lost. Clearly this loss of function will have a major impact in any skeletal muscle, but because all muscle tissue is aﬀected, including cardiac and respiratory muscles such as within the diaphragm, the consequences are devastating, and death is the ultimate result, usually through cardiac or respiratory failure. In early development, the structurally related protein utrophin (a con- traction of ‘ubiquitous dystrophin’) has been shown to play a similar sarco- lemmal link role in muscle structure, but aer birth the production of this protein rapidly declines, to be replaced by dystrophin. Utrophin has much structural similarity to dystrophin, including up to 80% homology in the critical glycoprotein binding C-terminal region (Figure 11. As would be expected, quantities of test compounds required for in vivo studies are also considerably lower compared to the dog model, this being an important consideration from a medicinal chemistry perspective. A recent review has summarised the various animal models available for a range of other orphan diseases. A range of drugs are used to manage the disease in suﬀerers, although at best these only help to alleviate the symptoms, while providing limited thera- peutic benet. Approaches based on nutritional supplements and the like have been reviewed recently,27 and are beyond the scope of this review. The dosing regime in this case was relatively short term, with the primary objective being to establish evidence for a histological eﬀect on muscle (reduced inammation, etc. Following 10 days of oral dosing at three diﬀerent dose levels À1 (10, 100, 500 mg kg ), the animals were sacriced and muscle samples taken for histological examination and gene expression analysis. From a histological perspective, immune cell inltration and inammation were also reduced. Although more data, such as more detailed histological examination, would clearly be instructive, other questions remain, including establishing an appropriate duration of, and level of dosing for the compound, as well as identifying an underlying mechanism of action. Cardiac structure and function improved, as did resistance to stress-associated cardiac failure, both of these being critical readouts when considering human trials. Furthermore, clear functional benet was noted in terms of enhanced exercise performance (voluntary wheel running model). While the data were statistically signi- cant, the authors urged caution because it was not clear at that time whether the improvements seen were due to the cardiac eﬀects previously described, or direct eﬀects on skeletal muscle. Nonetheless, the data was clearly supportive of further study, and progression of the compound to clinical trials followed shortly thereaer. The compound was found to be safe and well tolerated, with no drug-associated adverse events, but due in part to Figure 11. View Online Drug Discovery Approaches for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases 269 both the small trial cohort sizes, the results did not show a statistically signicant improvement aer treatment. Furthermore, there was a signi- cant age disparity, with the drug treatment group being of notably older age than the placebo cohort (13. Notwithstanding these complica- tions, results from the trial were generally viewed as being encouraging.
Flucytosine Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Adjunct to amphotericin B (or fuconazole) in cryptococcal meningits; adjunct to amphotericin B in systemic candidiasis; septcemia buy 120mgmg sildalist overnight delivery, pulmonary infecton generic sildalist 120 mg amex. Contraindicatons Renal impairment; elderly; blood disorders discount sildalist 120mgmg with amex, pregnancy (Appendix 7c); hypersensitvity. Precautons Elderly; renal impairment; also the use with amphotericin B (both nephrotoxic); liver- and kidney functon tests and blood counts required (weekly in renal impairment or in blood disorders); lactaton (Appendix 7b); interactons (Appendix 6c); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Adverse Efects Rash, nausea, vomitng and diarrhoea; alter- atons in liver functon tests; less frequently, confusion, hallucinatons, convulsions, head- ache, sedaton, vertgo; blood disorders in- cluding leukopenia, potentally fatal throm- bocytopenia and aplastc anaemia; cardiac arrest, myocardial toxicity, dyspnoea, azo- temia, ataxia, hypoglycemia. Griseofulvin* Pregnancy Category-C Indicatons Fungal infectons of the skin, scalp, hair and nails where topical treatment has failed or is inappropriate; athlete’s foot. Dose Oral Adult- 500 mg once a day or in divided doses, in severe infectons dose may be doubled. Contraindicatons Severe liver disease (Appendix 7a); pregnancy (Appendix 7c) (avoid pregnancy during and for 1 month afer treatment; men should not father children within 6 months of treatment; porphyria; systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders. May impair ability to perform skilled tasks, for example operatng machinery, driving. Adverse Efects Headache, nausea, vomitng, diarrhoea, rashes, dizziness, fatgue reported; dry mouth and angular stomatts; leukopenia, agranulocytosis; proteinuria reported; photosensitvity; lupus erythematosus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multforme; serum sickness, angioedema; peripheral neuropathy; confusion and impaired coordinaton. Ketoconazole Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Malassezia fulliculits dermatophytosis and chronic conditons which cannot be treated topically; infectons resistant to fuconazole; blastomycosis, candidiasis, chromomycosis. Monitor liver functon before treatment, then on weeks 2 and 4 of treatment, then every month. Avoid or use with cauton if abnormal liver functon tests (avoid in actve liver disease) or if history of hepatotoxicity with other drugs. Adverse Efects Nausea, vomitng, abdominal pain; pruritus; less commonly diarrhoea, headache, dizzi- ness, drowsiness and rash; very rarely, fatal liver damage (see Hepatotoxicity above), dys- pepsia, raised intracranial pressure, adreno- cortcal insufciency, erectle dysfuncton, menstrual disorders, azoospermia (with high doses), gynaecomasta, thrombocytopenia, photophobia and alopecia. Nystatn* Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Oral, oesophageal, intestnal, vaginal and cutaneous candidiasis. Dose Oral Adult- Intestnal candidiasis: 5,00,000 units every six h, doubled in severe infectons. Child- 1 month to 12 years: 1,00,000 units 4 tmes daily, immunocompromised children may require higher doses up to 5,00,000 units. Topical applicaton Dissolve one tablet in glycerine and apply locally 3 to 4 tmes. Adverse Efects Nausea, vomitng, diarrhoea at high doses; oral irritaton and sensitzaton; rash and rarely, erythema multforme (Steven’s- Johnson syndrome); eczema, burning. Cystcercosis is a systemic infecton caused by the larval form (cystcercus) of Taenia solium. In man, echinococcosis is due to the larval stage of Echi- nococcus granulosus or E. The larvae (onco- spheres) develop by expansion (cystc echinococcosis) or tumour-like infltraton (alveolar echinococcosis), respectvely, in the liver, lungs, or other organs. Diphyllobothriasis: In diphyllobothriasis, niclosamide or praziquantel in a single dose is highly efectve. Echinococcosis: In echinococcosis, surgery (or, if this is not possible, a tech- nique such as ‘puncture-aspiraton-injecton-reaspiraton’) is the treatment of choice for operable cystc disease due to Echinococcus granulosus but chemotherapy with benzimida- zoles, such as mebendazole and albendazole, may be of value as adjunctve therapy. They are contraindicated for the treat- ment of cestode infectons in pregnancy; pregnancy should be excluded before treatment with albendazole (non-hormonal contracepton during and for 1 month afer treatment). Hymenolepiasis: In hymenolepiasis, praziquantel is more efectve than niclosa- mide, although resistance to praziquantel has been reported. Repeated treatment may be necessary to cure intense infec- tons or to eliminate the parasite within a family group or insttuton. It thus ofers the prospect of a cure for neurocystcercosis, which has been treatable only by surgery, ant-infammatory cortcosteroids and antconvulsants. However, because dying and disintegratng cysts may induce localized cerebral oedema, treatment with praziquantel must always be undertaken in a hospital setng. Albendazole also kills neurocystcerci when given daily for one month; a cortcosteroid or an anthistamine is also given to reduce any infammatory reacton. Intestnal Nematode Infectons: Intestnal nematode infectons include ascariasis, capillariasis, enterobiasis, hookworm infecton, strongyloidiasis, trichos- trongyliasis and trichuriasis. Ascariasis: Ascariasis is an infecton, usually of the small intestne, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm). Single doses of levami- sole or pyrantel are efectve; the broad-spectrum anthelmin- thics, albendazole or mebendazole are also efectve. Capillariasis: Capillariasis is caused by infecton of the intestne with Capil- laria philippinensis. Prolonged treatment with mebendazole or albendazole ofers the only prospect of cure. Enterobiasis: Enterobiasis is an infecton of the large intestne caused by Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm, threadworm). All household members should be treated concurrently with a single dose of mebendazole, albendazole or pyrantel. Since reinfecton readily occurs, at least one further dose should be given 2-4 weeks later. Piperazine is also efectve but must be taken regularly for at least 7 consecutve days. Hookworm Infectons: Hookworm infectons are caused by Ancylostoma duodenale (ancylostomiasis) and Necator americanus (necatoriasis); they are a major cause of iron-defciency anaemia in the tropics and sub-tropics. In hookworm, broad-spectrum anthelminthics are preferred wherever other nematode infectons are endemic. There is some evidence to suggest that the use of mebendazole in pregnancy is not associated with an increased incidence of adverse efects on the fetus. However, neither mebendazole nor albendazole should be used during the frst trimester of pregnancy to treat nema- tode infectons. Both drugs are contraindicated for the treat- ment of cestode infectons in pregnancy. Levamisole is efectve in the treatment of mixed Ascaris and hookworm infectons and pyrantel has been highly efectve in some community-based control programmes, although several doses are ofen needed to eliminate Necator ameri- canus infecton. Patents with iron-defciency anaemia caused by hookworm infecton require supplementary iron salts and should receive ferrous sulphate (200 mg daily for adults) for at least 3 months afer the haemoglobin concentraton of 12g/100 ml is obtained. Strongyloidiasis: Strongyloidiasis is an infecton of the small intestne caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Ivermectn in a single dose of 200 µg/kg or 200 µg/ kg/day on two consecutve days is the treatment of choice for chronic strongyloidiasis but it may not be available in all coun- tries. Albendazole 400 mg once or twice daily for 3 days is well tolerated by both adults and children aged over 2 years and it may eradicate up to 80% of infectons.
Morphine Hydrochloride – 112° – 115° Calculated with reference to the dried substance in a 2% w/v soln purchase sildalist 120mg free shipping. Light Absorption The measurement of light absorption both in the visible and ultraviolet range is employed as an authentic means of identification of offcial pharmaceutical substances buy discount sildalist line. Viscosity Viscosity measurements are employed as a method of identifing different grades of liquids order 120mgmg sildalist visa. Specific Surface Area The surface area of powders is determined by subsieve-sizer which is designed for measurement of average particle sizes in the range of 0. Swelling Power The swelling power of some pharmaceutical products are well defined. Examples : (i) Isphagula Husk : When 1 g, agitated gently and occasionally for four hours in a 25 ml stoppered measuring cylinder filled upto the 20 ml mark with water and allowed to stand for 1 hour, it occupies a volume of not less than 20 ml and sets to a jelly. Infrared Absorption Measurement and subsequent comparison of the infrared spectrum (between 4000-667 cm–1) of compounds with that of an authentic sample has recently become a versatile method for the identification of drugs having widely varying characteristics. Examples : Infrared spectroscopy is employed to compare samples of chloramphenicol palmitate (biologically active form) recovered from chloramphenicol palmitate mixture vis-a-vis an artificially prepared mixture of authentic sample consisting 10 per cent of the ‘inactive polymorph’. Miscellaneous Characteristics A large number of miscellaneous characteristics are usually included in many official compendia to ascertain the purity, authenticity and identification of drugs—including : sulphated ash, loss on drying, clarity and colour of solution, presence of heavy metals and specific tests. Sulphated Ash Specifically for the synthetic organic compounds, the Pharmacopoeia prescribes values for sulphated ash. The sulphated ash is determined by a double ignition with concentrated sulphuric acid. The method is one of some precision, and provides results which are rather more reproducible than those obtained by simple ignition. Loss on Drying Loss on drying reflects the net weight of a pharmaceutical substance being dried at a specified tempera- ture either at an atmospheric or under reduced pressure for a stipulated duration with a specific quantity of the substance. Clarity and Colour of Solution When a pharmaceutical substance is made to dissolve at a known concentration in a specified solvent it gives rise to a clear solution that may be either clear or possess a definite colouration. Heavy Metals Various tests are prescribed in the offcial compendia to control heavy metal e. Hence, a stringent limit is recommended for the presence of heavy metals in medicinal compounds. Specific Tests In fact, certain known impurities are present in a number of pharmaceutical substances. The presence of such impurities may be carried out by performing prescribed specific tests in various official compendia in order to ascertain their presence within the stipulated limits. Obviously the amount of any single impurity present in an official substance is usually small, and therefore, the normal visible-reaction-response to any test for that impurity is also quite small. Hence, it is necessary and important to design the individual test in such a manner so as to avoid possible errors in the hands of various analysts. It may be achieved by taking into consideration the following three cardinal factors, namely : (a) Specificity of the Tests : A test employed as a limit test should imply some sort of selective reaction with the trace impurity. It has been observed that a less specific test which limits a number of possible impurities rather instantly has a positive edge over the highly specific tests. Exmaple : Contamination of Pb2+ and other heavy metal impurities in Alum is precipitated by thioacetamide as their respective sulphides at pH 3. The sensitivity is governed by a number of variable factors having a common objective to yield reproducible results, for instance : (i) Gravimetric Analysis : The precipitation is guided by the concentration of the solute and of the precipitating reagent, reaction time, reaction temperature and the nature and amount of other substance(s) present in solution. A number of such tests shall be discussed here briefly with specific examples wherever possible and necessary : 1. Limits of Insoluble Matter The limits of insoluble matter present in pharmaceutical substances and stated in various official com- pendia are given below : S. Boric Acid Alcohol insoluble substances Absence of metallic borates and insoluble impurities 2. Chloramine Alcohol-insoluble matter : Sodium chloride impurity : Shake 1 g for 30 mts. The residue washed with 5 m1 of ethanol (96% v/v) and dried at 100 to 105°C and weighed. Filter, wash the residue on the filter with hot alcohol (90% v/v) until the washings cease to be coloured violet. In the same vein, tests for clarity of solution offer another means of limiting insoluble parent drug sub- stances in their correspondingly more highly water-soluble derivatives. Limits of Soluble Matter In order to detect the presence of some very specific impurities normally present in the official substances the limits of soluble impurities have been laid down in different pharmacopoeias. Water-soluble medium) filter through paper, previously washed with a mixture of 10 barium salts are highly ml dil. Magnesium : Prepare the sample solution by adding 10 ml Magnesium : of a 1% w/v soln. Limits of Moisture, Volatile Matter and Residual Solvents A good number of pharmaceutical substances usually absorb moisture on storage thereby causing deterioration. Such an anomaly can be safely restricted and limited by imposing an essential requirement for the loss in weight (Loss on Drying) when the pharmaceutical chemical is subjected to drying under specified conditions. The quantum of heat that may be applied to the substance varies widely as per the following norms : (a) Nature of the substance (b) Decomposition characterisics of the substance. Various official compendia recommended different temperatures and duration of drying either at atmos- pheric or reduced pressure (vacuum). Pharmaceutical Substance Drying Conditions Drying Time Prescribed Limit (°C) (Hrs. Pharmaceutical Substance Drying Conditions Drying Time Prescribed Limit (°C) (Hrs) (%) Inorganic Salt Hydrates : l. The chromatographic procedure may be carried out by employing : (a) A stainless-steel column (1 m × 2 mm) packed with porous polymer beads e. From the chromatograms obtained and taking into account any water detectable in solution (1), calculate the percentage w/w of water taking 0. Limits of Non-Volatile Matter Pharmaceutical chemicals belonging to the domain of inorganic as well as organic substances containing readily volatile matter for which the various official compendia prescribe limits of non-volatile matter. It is pertinent to mention here that the Pharmacopoeia usually makes a clear distinction between substances that are readily volatile and substances that are volatile upon strong ignition, for instance : (a) Readily Volatile : e. Limits of Residue on Ignition In fact, the limits of residue on ignition are basically applicable to the following two categories of pharmaceutical substances, namely : (a) Those which are completely volatile when ignited e. Limits of Loss on Ignition Official compendia include the limits of ‘loss on ignition’ which is generally applied to relatively stable pharmaceutical substances that are likely to contain thermolabile impurities. Limits on Ash Value The ash values usually represent the inorganic residue present in official herbal drugs and pharmaceuti- cal substances. These values are categorized into four heads, namely : (a) Ash Value (Total Ash), (b) Acid-Insoluble Ash, (c) Sulphated Ash, and (d) Water-Soluble Ash. These values would be explained with the help of some typical examples stated below : 1.