By X. Miguel. University of Wisconsin-Whitewater.
However buy malegra fxt with paypal impotence quoad hanc, many publishers do not permit placing any form of unpublished material in the end references buy genuine malegra fxt on-line erectile dysfunction can cause pregnancy. Most authorities recommend placing references to personal communications such as letters and conversations within the running text buy malegra fxt with american express impotence remedy, not as formal end references. Include the nature and source of the cited information, using a term or terms to indicate clearly that no corresponding citation is in the reference list. Such statements may include additional details, such as the reason for the communication. The rules below apply when a letter is included in a reference list rather than within the text as described above. Letters are similar to manuscripts in that they contain little information from which to construct a citation. References to letters differ from manuscripts in that they have a formal structure applied to clearly identify the author (initiator) and the recipient (receiver) of the communication. Because of the lack of other information to include in a citation to a letter, providing the full names for both author and recipient is recommended as well as any clarifying notes on its content. Most examples for citations to letters provided in this chapter are taken from the Modern Manuscripts Collection of the National Library of Medicine. Other types of personal communication, such as conversations, are not included in the examples for this chapter because they are so rarely seen in a reference list. Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Letters and Other Personal Communication. Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Connective Phrase (R) | Recipient (R) | Recipient Affiliation (O) | Date (R) | Pagination (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Author Enter surname (family or last name) first for the person initiating the communication Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the document cited. Letters and Other Personal Communication 607 Box 2 Other surname rules Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit becomes Al Bassit, Lama Jiddeke M. Letters and Other Personal Communication 609 Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. If the actual name is located elsewhere, add it surname first in square brackets after the title. Letter with place inferred Connective Phrase for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Connective Phrase Use the phrase "Letter to", "Conversation with", or "Telephone conversation with" as appropriate End the phrase with a colon and a space Recipient for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Recipient Enter the given (first) name and any middle name or initials of the person receiving the communication; follow initials with periods Give the surname (family or last name) Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the document cited. James Box 17 Other surname rules Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit Jiddeke M. Erdman For non-English names that have been romanized (written in the roman alphabet), capitalize only the first letter if an initial is represented by more than one letter Iu. Lang Omit rank and honors such as Colonel or Sir that precede a name, unless no given name is provided Sir Frances Hildebrand becomes Frances Hildebrand Dr. If the actual name is located elsewhere, add it in square brackets following the title. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Letter to: Ettore Marubini (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy). Letter to: Mihai Barbulescu (Clinica Chirurgicala, Spitalul Clinic Coltea, Bucarest, Romania). Letter with place inferred Date for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Date Begin with the year Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. Letter with date estimated Letters and Other Personal Communication 625 Pagination for Personal Communication (optional) General Rules for Pagination If the pages of a letter are numbered, provide the total number of pages Follow the page total with a space and the letter p If the pages of a letter are not numbered, provide the total number of sheets of paper on which the letter appears Follow the page total with the word leaf or leaves End pagination information in both cases with a period Specific Rules for Pagination Roman numerals used as page numbers Box 35 Roman numerals used as page numbers If the pages of a letter have roman numerals instead of the usual arabic numbers: Convert the roman numeral on the last page of the text to an arabic number Follow the number by "p. Letter with numbered pages Language for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Language Give the language of communication if not English Capitalize the language name Follow the language name with a period Examples for Language 12. Letter in a language other than English Notes for Personal Communication (optional) General Rules for Notes Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself Complete sentences are not required Be brief 626 Citing Medicine Specific Rules for Notes Name and location of a public archive Restrictions on use Other types of material to include in notes Box 36 Name and location of a public archive Information on a library or other public archive where the letter may be seen is helpful to the reader. Box 37 Restrictions on use A library or other archive may place a variety of types of restrictions on the use of letters. For example, letters may only be available with an appointment or to scholars at the doctorate level. Box 38 Other types of material to include in notes Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself. Letter asking if Halsted could perform a hernia operation on the carpenter of the Army Medical Museum. Letter with note Examples of Citations to Letters and Other Personal Communication 1. Letter in a language other than English de Lucretiis, Gaetano (San Severo, Italy). Wheaton thanks Younglove for a cowpox sample and describes his experiments with smallpox. Individual Manuscripts Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Individual Manuscripts The general format for a reference to an individual manuscript, including punctuation: Examples of Citations to Individual Manuscripts A manuscript refers to any type of work, either handwritten or typewritten, that is not published. Examples of manuscripts include author drafts of journal articles and books as well as finished works. There is no place of publication, publisher, or date of publication in an unpublished manuscript. Other differences from the standard book are that the full names of authors are used, and an unpaginated manuscript is described in terms of leaves, not pages. Include in a citation, when possible, the name of a library or other public archive where the item may be found, as well as any order or catalog number. If a manuscript is not available in a public archive, most authorities recommend placing references to it within the running text, not as a formal end reference. The nature and source of the cited information should be identified by an appropriate statement. Place the source information in parentheses, using a term or terms to indicate that the citation is not represented in the reference list. Note that the majority of examples for citations provided in this chapter are taken from the Modern Manuscripts Collection of the National Library of Medicine. Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Manuscripts Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Secondary Author (O) | Date (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Availability (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author for Individual Manuscripts (required) General Rules for Author Enter surname (family or last name) first for the author Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited. Box 2 Other surname rules Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit becomes Al Bassit, Lama Jiddeke M. Follow the same rules as used for author names, but end the list of names with a comma and the specific role, that is, translator. Manuscript author name or secondary author name with designations of rank within a family 4.
This a signifcant debt load and are faced with a limited cash fow debt tends to be relatively favourable in terms of after-tax rates may wonder about the relative merits of paying down their and repayment options cheap malegra fxt 140 mg visa erectile dysfunction treatment scams. Several fnal decision may be a matter of personal preference and of Canadian provinces have therefore pioneered programs to risk tolerance order malegra fxt 140mg line impotence after 60. Learning how different fnancial management defer interest on the provincial portion of medical resident practises can best ft a residents personal level of comfort and loans cheap generic malegra fxt uk erectile dysfunction with diabetes type 1. The interest rates on federal and provincial student loans may be as high as two or three percentage points above the prime Negotiating with fnancial institutions lending rate. However, the interest paid on these loans has been Residents can save precious time and avoid unnecessary frustra- claimable as a federal tax credit since 1998. Most provinces tion by working with a fnancer who is familiar with physicians provide such tax credits as well. In consolidating all debts to the bank, the resi- from terms that are more advantageous than those normally dents will forfeit both federal and provincial tax credits. A fnancial consultant can provide If the student loans stay outside of the loan consolida- their physician clients with some useful advice in preparation tion, the residents will realize an after-tax interest rate of for a meeting with a fnancial institution s account manager. A credit rating is based mainly on an individual s history of debt repayment, The fnancial planner gave three alternatives to the resi- his or her current fnancial position (assets and liabilities) and dents on their debt management process. Because banks often place more emphasis on current credit rating than on future income potential, it is Focus on savings: If they both purchase $13,000 of crucial to maintain an excellent credit rating. Because credit ratings are based on a seven-year cycle, any late interest payments or failures to pay bills will have a negative Focus on reducing debt: After four years of practice impact on an individual s credit rating for some time. A fnancial consultant can provide advice on maintaining a good credit Combine strategies: By combining these strategies, rating. Trainees should be approach their fnancial institutions to consolidate their proactive with their money by negotiating with fnancial loans into a line of credit or term loan. Through appropri- ratings, they can negotiate a line of credit at interest rates ate fnancial planning all residents can secure fnancial as low as the prime lending rate. Tax Tips for the Medical However, caution should be used when considering con- Student, Resident and Fellow. The bank offers the resident and spouse the prime rate of four per cent on a line of credit to consolidate their indebtedness including their student loans, on which they have been paying prime plus three per cent. The bank s offer seems to be attractive, but after a closer look, the actual after-tax savings would be approximately 1. Logan C, Director Disability Services, Homewood Employee Health: personal conversation Canadian Medical Association. In Creating a Healthy Culture in Medicine: a Report From the 2004 Quality Worklife Quality Healthcare Collaborative. College of Family Physicians of Canada, Canadian Medical Association, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Rich P. Global Business pdf and Economic Roundtable for Mental health College of Family Physicians of Canada, Canadian Medical 1-E. Promoting healthy partnerships in medical Intelligence: Key Readings on the Mayer and Salovey Model. Leadership in academic psychiatry: the vi- sion, the givens, and the nature of leaders. Balancing family and career: addressing the description of deans and students perceptions. Is that your pager or Stressful incidents, stress and coping strategies in the pre- mine: a survey of women academic family physicians in dual registration house offcer year. Inside/Outside: A Physician s Journey With Reading our way to more culturally appropriate care. Health problems and the use of health services among physicians: a review article with particular emphasis on 4-C. Physical activity and public health: Updated Faugier J, Lancaster J, Pickles D, Dobson K. Barriers to recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports healthy eating in the nursing profession: Part 2. Gratefulness, the Heart of Prayer: An hours: Effect of a nutrition based intervention. Toward a normative defnition of medical training, workload, fatigue and physical stress: A prospective professionalism. Workplace bullying, psychological distress, and job satisfaction in junior doctors. Job satisfaction and motivation among public roles and professional obligations. Journal of the physicians in academic medical centers: insights from a cross- American Medical Association. In Creating a Healthy Culture in Medicine: School of International Service: The American University. Physician Health: The Essential Guide to Understanding the Health Care Needs of Physicians. Physicians with and illness or disability Canadian Association of Physicians with Disabilities. The Centre for Professional Well-being Report from the 2008 International Conference on Physician www. Learn about the supports trainees can utilize locally, provincially, and nationally. If you re not sure, speak to your local health/ wellness resources or your provincial physician health program. Emphasize that the meeting is meant to be supportive, a mutual sharing of concern, and involving mutual brainstorming about next steps. Share the information from the relevant portions of this guide as well as contact information for clinical supports. Acknowledge that you are not in a role to act as their physician and ignore all urges to diagnose and treat. Offer them time off to attend to their health, your ongoing support, and your willingness to help them move forward. If your concerns involve patient care and safety consider your duty to the public as well as the trainee. Be prepared to cover all costs involved and also be reasonable in your expectations of the report. In general, you will only receive relevant diagnosis/recommenda- tions in an effort to respect the privacy of the learner. If you feel the trainee is at imminent risk of self harm or harm to others state your concern clearly and request they present to the emergency room. Welcome residents back to training in the context of the approval of their clinicians, appropriate documentation of health, a thoughtful return-to-work plan, and consideration of ongoing monitoring of health. Refect carefully on your leadership, that of your committee, and the overall culture of your Department. Procure an external consultant to collect qualitative and quantitative data about the health and wellness of your program.
In what follows safe 140 mg malegra fxt erectile dysfunction treatment levitra, we pay considerable attention to the justification for this stance order malegra fxt 140 mg with visa erectile dysfunction treatment philippines. This does not order malegra fxt paypal erectile dysfunction at age 26, of Rapport F, Johnson M, and Bharadwaj A (2009) "Public" perceptions of gamete donation: a research review Public Understanding of Science 18: 61-77. Second, since some ways of meeting demand for bodily material may give rise to ethical concerns, a given jurisdiction is not obliged to meet all demands, even if other less scrupulous jurisdictions may be willing to do so. Third, there is room for reasonable pluralism among jurisdictions regarding the acceptability of particular interventions to increase supply or reduce demand. This by itself may have the result that countries with more plentiful supplies of material may meet the demand of countries with lower levels of supply. In spite of all this, regulators must be aware of the ways in which a failure to introduce practicable and ethically justifiable measures for reducing demand and increasing supply can contribute to exploitative, fraudulent and harmful treatment of vulnerable individuals in countries where illegal or poorly regulated systems for obtaining bodily material become established. The adoption of (national and international) protocols intended to protect the welfare of donors may be only a first step in ensuring that proper ethical appraisal takes place in any particular case. This is not just because implementation may be an issue; it is also because formal safeguards can only ever be part of the picture. Difficulties in ensuring appropriate ethical appraisal on the ground may particularly arise where health and after-care provision in general is uncertain. However, it is just as important (though sometimes politically more delicate) to acknowledge the possibility of addressing scarcity through managing demand. It is striking that public attitudes to markets in health care appear to differ significantly, depending on the care under consideration. Fertility treatment appears to be regarded by many in a light that allows it to leave the nationally- funded health service without too much public complaint. Indeed it is interesting that to some extent the growth of cross-border reproductive care has proved less controversial than attempts by specialists in the field of fertility treatment to drive down demand by educating women 513 regarding their fertility, and encouraging attempts to become pregnant earlier. And there are harder elements of policy, which might conceivably deny material to those who are thought to be particularly reckless with their health. Here the Council pointed out that public health schemes, if they are to be effective, cannot be based on individual consent, because by definition they affect large sections of society. Moreover, in its report, the Council took seriously the view that it is the role of states to limit health inequalities. A stewardship model, then, will aim to provide environments conducive to health, in ways that reflect collectively-endorsed commitments to reasonably healthy lifestyles. It will also seek to reduce the bases of socially inequitable need for bodily material, by reducing the socio-economic contributors to health inequality. In order to ensure that all groups and individuals have a fair opportunity to lead a healthy life, the report further requires that governments work to remove inequalities that affect disadvantaged groups or individuals. The public health report clearly states that public health programmes should not be coercive in their approach, and that measures should largely be implemented after consultation. It also advises that the goal of improving the publics health should be balanced against a commitment to secure and protect important aspects of private or personal life such as privacy. However, it would be consistent with the principles set out in the public health report to give states a responsibility to advise and assist citizens in avoiding practices injurious to their health and encourage and facilitate practices which will benefit them particularly where the means of addressing resultant health problems are in short supply. In the current context it would be particularly relevant to consider the approach the report takes to the issue of obesity which is pertinent to both the causes of disease resulting in organ failure, and the success of subsequent transplants. There is also the possibility of genetic components to disease, where some populations may simply be more susceptible to particular conditions than others, thereby limiting the effectiveness of demand-focused interventions. Therefore, to ensure that no population is disadvantaged by a solution to scarcity that seeks to manage demand, as opposed to increase supply, any solutions adopted must be evidence-based and culturally sensitive. Others felt that recognising any rights of ownership in the body involved an unjustifiable form of objectification or even commodification of the body, arguing that it is persons who exist as embodied beings, and persons should not be treated as commodities. There is also the long-standing legal principle that others may acquire property rights in body parts once separate from the body, if, as a result of the application of skill they have changed the attributes of the material. Our concern here is to highlight the pitfalls that arise when attempting to characterise the relationship between persons and their own bodily material by means of a blanket conception of property. On the contrary, the concept of ownership often rather seems to serve as a metaphor for autonomy and bodily self-determination, principles which can as well imply a rejection of commercialization. Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4: 4. Distinct ethical justifications may underpin each of these different alleged entitlements. We then move on to examine these assumptions critically, and to construct our own ethical framework. The rationale offered (often by regulators) is that donation must be founded on altruistic decisions. On property from personhood, symbolic existence and motivation to donate organs Transplantation 193: 200. A useful distinction for our purposes is between behavioural and motivational definitions of the term. Motivational conceptions of altruism define altruistic action in terms of the internal psychological states that produce behaviours. An altruistic action, on this view, is something done because the person concerned wishes to contribute to the welfare of another. Behavioural definitions of altruism, by contrast, focus solely on the costs and benefits of action to the person concerned, without reference to the internal motivational state that may have produced the action in question. A hypothetical example may help to illustrate the difference between the two definitions. Suppose someone gives all their money to charity in the false hope that it will bring fame and increased social status. This action is not motivationally altruistic, but the fact that it may benefit others at great cost to the individual concerned means that it will be regarded as behaviourally altruistic. Many advocates of altruistic donation see altruism as an important virtue, hence as resting on an underlying set of moral and psychological dispositions. We return later in this chapter to a discussion of the potential social value of the promotion of altruism as a virtue (see paragraph 5. It is important to stress that if altruistic donation appears insufficient to meet demand in some areas, we face a choice of whether or not to move to an incentivised system: it is not a necessary step, and we have not assumed in our deliberations that the choice made must be the same across all domains of donation. First, someone may donate biological materials because it also makes them feel good to help others. But cases such as these remain altruistic for our purposes, on the grounds that concern for the welfare of others is a genuine motivator, and on the grounds that a disposition to help others can be reckoned as virtuous whether or not founded on the pleasure such action brings to the donor. Second, someone may wish to help others, but they may also be concerned about how much of their own time they can afford to sacrifice. In these sorts of situations, reimbursement for loss of time, or loss of earnings, can facilitate altruism rather than eliminate it. Third, many real-life cases will feature mixed motivations: someone who is paid well for charitable work may undertake this work for a combination of reasons, including a genuine desire to assist others and a desire to improve their own quality of life. Their altruism remains genuine here, for it might explain why they choose charity work as a career rather than some other (potentially better paid) job. So, we can imagine a person whose desire to donate a kidney is genuinely motivated by concern for the welfare of a stranger.