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If the drug worked order discount sildigra on-line homeopathic remedy for erectile dysfunction causes, Totman argued that this would provide them with justiﬁcation for subjecting themselves to the experiment and for choosing to take the drug trusted sildigra 100mg erectile dysfunction jackson ms. The results showed that the group in a state of high dissonance experienced less pain following the placebo than the group in low dissonance cheapest sildigra erectile dysfunction what age. Totman argued that this suggests that being in a state of low justiﬁcation activated the individual’s unconscious regulating mechanisms, which caused physiological changes to reduce the pain, providing the group with justiﬁcation for their behaviour, which therefore eradicated their state of dissonance. An example of Totman’s theory The following example illustrates the relationship between justiﬁcation, the need to see oneself as rational and in control, and the problem of dissonance between these two factors. Visiting Lourdes in order to improve one’s health status involves a degree of invest- ment in that behaviour in terms of time, money, etc. If the visit to Lourdes has no eﬀect, then the behaviour begins to appear irrational and unjustiﬁed. If the individual can provide justiﬁcation for their behaviour, for example ‘I was paid to go to Lourdes’, then they will experience low dissonance. If, however, the individual can ﬁnd no justiﬁcation for their visit to Lourdes and therefore believes ‘I chose to do it and it didn’t work’, they remain in a state of high dissonance. Dissonance is an uncomfortable state to be in and the individual is motivated to remove this state. Therefore, according to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance can be resolved by the placebo having an eﬀect on the individual’s health status by activating unconscious regulating mechanisms. Support for cognitive dissonance theory The following factors provide support and evidence for cognitive dissonance theory: s The theory can explain all placebo eﬀects, not just pain. This helps to explain those reported instances where the individual does not appear to expect to get better. This can explain some of the proposed eﬀects of treatment characteristics, individual characteristics and therapist characteristics. Problems with cognitive dissonance theory However, there are several problems with cognitive dissonance theory: s Much of the research examining the eﬀects of justiﬁcation has involved giving money to subjects to enable them to provide justiﬁcation for their behaviour. It is possible that providing subjects with money increases their anxiety and therefore increases pain perception. However, an individual must expect some changes following the intervention, otherwise they would not make the original investment. It is also possible that paying subjects to participate changes their expectations of a successful outcome. These are outlined in terms of the areas of health psychology described in this book, which provides additional insights into possible mechanisms of the placebo eﬀect. Health beliefs For a placebo to have an eﬀect, the individual needs to have a belief that the intervention will be eﬀective. For example, a placebo in the form of a pill will work if the individual subscribes to a medical model of health and illness and believes that traditional medical interventions are eﬀective. A placebo in the form of herbal tea may only be eﬀective if the individual believes in alternative medicines and is open to non-traditional forms of intervention. Perhaps the belief about a treatment has either a direct eﬀect on health through physiological changes, or an indirect eﬀect via behavioural change. For example, the belief that a treatment intervention will work, may directly inﬂuence the individual’s immune system or alternatively may promote a change in lifestyle. Illness cognitions For a placebo to have an eﬀect, the individual needs to hold particular beliefs about their illness. For example, if an illness is seen as long lasting without episodes of remission, times of spontaneous recovery may not happen, which will therefore not be explained in terms of the eﬀectiveness of the treatment. Likewise, if an individual believes that their illness has a medical cause then a placebo in the form of a pill would be eﬀective. However, if the individual believes that their illness is caused by their lifestyle, a pill placebo may not be eﬀective. Health professionals’ health beliefs Placebos may also be related to the beliefs of the health professionals. For example, a doctor may need to believe in the intervention for it to have an eﬀect. Furthermore, theories of health professionals’ health beliefs and their role in doctor–patient com- munication illustrate a useful emphasis on interaction rather than individual characteristics. Health-related behaviours A placebo may function via changes in health-related behaviour. If an individual believes that they have taken something or behaved in a way that may promote good health, they may also change other health-related behaviours (e. Furthermore, the choice to take a medication may itself be seen as a health-related behaviour, and may be predicted by theories of behaviour and behaviour change. If placebos have an eﬀect either directly (physiological change) or indirectly (behaviour change) then this is in parallel with theories of stress. The belief that an individual has taken control of their illness (perceived control) may reduce the stress response reducing any eﬀects this stress may have on the illness. Pain Placebo-induced pain reduction may be mediated either by physiological changes, such as opiate release, or by anxiety reduction. Both of these changes can be explained in terms of the gate control theory of pain, which suggests that the experience of pain is a result of an interaction between psychological (beliefs, anxiety) and physiological (opiates) processes. Perhaps, placebo-induced pain reduction may also be mediated by patient expectations and previous experience about the eﬃcacy of the treatment intervention. Implications for dualism Placebos indicate that an individual’s symptoms and health status may be inﬂuenced by their expectations, beliefs and previous experience. These factors are central to health psychology in its attempt to challenge the traditional biomedical approach to health and illness. If an individual’s psychological state can inﬂuence their health, then perhaps the mind and body should not be seen as separate entities but as interacting. However, this interaction still assumes that the mind and body are distinct; to interact with each other, they still need to be deﬁned as being separate. Many theories have been developed in an attempt to explain how placebos work, and these can be categorized as non-interactive theories, which focus on the characteristics of either the patient, the health professional or the treatment, and interactive theories, which regard placebo eﬀects as arising from interaction between these diﬀerent variables. In particular, most explanations of placebos point to a central role for expectations both of the patient and the health professional. These theories suggest that if a patient expects to get better, then this expectation will inﬂuence their health. Therefore, through expectancies, it is possible that patient and doctor expecta- tions, anxiety, conditioning, opiates and cognitive dissonance, could interact with each other. Finally, placebos have many implications for the areas of health psychology examined in this book. They indicate that beliefs, behaviours, stress, pain and illness may not be separate areas, requiring separate theories and research, but may be interrelated, and that rather than being a factor to be taken out of an understanding of health the placebo eﬀect may itself play a central role in determining health status.
Fitness consists of the following: Cardiorespiratory endurance: Your body’s ability to pump blood and circulate oxygen purchase sildigra 120mg amex erectile dysfunction doctor melbourne, which is improved by elevating your heart rate safely for increasing periods of time sildigra 100 mg free shipping impotence test. Body composition: Your body’s ratio of fat and lean mass purchase genuine sildigra line impotence from prostate surgery, which is improved by all types of exercise. Flexibility: Your body’s ability to move ﬂuidly and with good range, which is improved by stretching or activities such as swimming. Muscular strength: Your body’s ability to lift and push, which is improved largely through weight training. Muscular endurance: Your body’s ability to sustain effort without getting tired, which is also improved by all kinds of exercise. However, we believe that exercise has so many beneﬁts that everyone physically capable of moving around would feel better if they just did it. So this section covers the many good things that can happen — as well as the bad things that can be prevented — when you exer- cise. You may ﬁnd a few of these items surprising, but they’re all 100 percent true and well documented. You didn’t think you’d get away with just reading a list of reasons for exercise, did you? Follow the instructions here in order to identify the ten reasons you should be exercising. Some items may be relevant to just about everyone; others may be particularly important to you. For example, if you have a family history of dia- betes or colon cancer, those items may be especially important and make it on your top ten list. When you ﬁnish checking off the items that pertain to you, spend a few moments deciding which ones are the most important and relevant to you. Fitting Exercise into Your Life You may have some pretty good reasons for exercising now, but wow, 30 to 90 minutes — where will you ﬁnd the time? The government guide- lines state that it’s just as useful to do your exercise in 10- or 15-minute segments. And it may help you to know that exercise con- sists of just about any type of activity that occurs at a moderate level of intensity. Moderate intensity means that you’re increasing your breathing and heart rate, which you can do by mowing the lawn, dancing, swimming, bike riding, jogging, or even walking at a rapid pace. Thus, if your job is physically demanding, you may already be getting sufﬁcient exercise every day. On the other hand, if you religiously take your dogs on a leisurely walk every morning for 45 minutes, that probably won’t do the trick — you need to pick up your pace because anything done leisurely just doesn’t cut it. Therefore, an exercise program that works for one person may not work for another. The following instructions and checklist in Worksheet 10-3 are designed to help you choose exercise that will work into your life. Read through Worksheet 10-3, checking off all the exercise ideas that could conceiv- ably become part of your routine. Include comments on how you think you can work these activities into your daily life. Chapter 10: Lifting Mood Through Exercise 153 Worksheet 10-3 Exercise Checklist ❑ Get up 15 minutes early each day and take a brisk walk — take the dogs if you have any! And hopefully you’ve found a few types of exercise that just may ﬁt into your life and have tried them out. Your intentions may be good, but what happens when your ini- tial enthusiasm and commitment to do something positive for yourself fade? Fighting de-motivating thoughts The problem with ﬁnding and maintaining motivation to exercise lies in distorted, de-motivating thinking (see Chapters 5, 6, and 7 for more on distorted thinking). De-motivating thinking keeps you from taking action and puts you in a defeatist frame of mind, where you’re doomed to fail. The following example gives you an idea of how you can give de-motivating thoughts the one-two punch. She rushes off every morning to drop her kids at day care and tries to ﬁt in her errands during a 45-minute lunch break. When her doctor suggests she begin exercising to improve her mood and health, Janine laughs and says, “You’ve got to be kidding; I don’t have an extra second in my day. Worksheet 10-5 shows what she comes up with, and Worksheet 10-6 has her reﬂections on the exercise. For example, rather than saying, “You’re the best person in the whole world,” consider narrowing it down and saying, “I love the way you play with the baby. For example, you may make a note in your calendar or put sticky notes in various places around the house. Get into the habit of handing out genuine compliments to everyone, not just your partner. Doing so will improve your popularity by making people notice you, and it may even get you a raise! Some people dismiss compliments by saying, “Oh, you don’t mean that,” or “That isn’t really true. People dismiss compliments not because they don’t want to hear them but because they have trouble accepting them. After you spend a couple of weeks increasing the compliments you give your partner, reﬂect on any changes in your relationship (see Worksheet 15-5). Self-Blame Reality Scramblers relationships, and effects of, 207–208 body signals. Hachette Livre’s policy is to use papers that are natural, renewable and recyclable products and made from wood grown in sustainable forests. The logging and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Whilst the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of going to press, neither the authors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. In particular, (but without limiting the generality of the preceding disclaimer) every effort has been made to check drug dosages; however it is still possible that errors have been missed. Furthermore, dosage schedules are constantly being revised and new side-effects recognized. For these reasons the reader is strongly urged to consult the drug companies’ printed instructions before administering any of the drugs recommended in this book. He considered a text in clinical pharmacology suitable for his undergraduate and postgradu- ate students to be an important part of the programme he developed in his department at Guy’s Hospital Medical School, London. In other words, he helped to change a ‘non-subject’ into one of the most important areas of study for medical students. He was also aware of the need for a high quality textbook in clinical pharmacology that could also be used by nurses, phar- macists, pharmacology science students and doctors preparing for higher qualifications. It is interesting to follow in all the editions of the book, for example, how the treatment of tumours has progressed. It was about the time of the first edition that Trounce set up the first oncology clinic at Guy’s Hospital in which he investigated the value of combined radiation and chemotherapy and drug cocktails in the treatment of lymphomas.
For example buy sildigra 120mg mastercard erectile dysfunction at the age of 28, the “Flexible Baton” fires a bag containing 40 g of number 9 lead shot with a projectile velocity of approx 90 m/s sildigra 50 mg line erectile dysfunction caused by hernia. At impact buy sildigra with amex erectile dysfunction water pump, projectiles are designed to have separated from the shotgun shell and wadding, opened out to strike the target with its largest surface area before collapsing as they lose energy. The effect is to provide sufficient blunt force from an ideal range of 10–30 m to stop an adult’s progress. In one study (11), the most common injuries were bruising and abra- sions, followed by lacerations without having retention of the actual bean bag. However, significant other serious injuries have been documented, including closed fractures, penetrating wounds with retention of the bean bag projectile (and at times parts of the shell and/or wadding), and internal organ damage. Blunt injuries included splenic rupture, pneumothorax, compartment syndrome, tes- ticular rupture, subcapsular liver hematoma, and cardiac contusions. It was noted that retention of the bag was not always suspected on an initial clinical examination, being detected on subsequent scans. Clearly, this device has potential for significant trauma to anywhere on the body. Just as with other nonlethal alternatives for restraint, the forensic physician should always consider why such techniques needed to be deployed; use of drugs or alcohol and psychiatric illness are all common concurrent prob- lems in these situations. Cooper, Biomedical Sciences, Defence Sci- ence and Technology Laboratory, Porton, England, for information regarding baton rounds, and Sgt. John Gall and colleagues from Australia for providing information rel- evant to their jurisdiction. Discussion of “Effects of the Taser in fatalities involving police con- frontation. Detainees may have to be interviewed regarding their involvement in an offense and possibly further detained overnight for court; guidance may therefore have to be given to the custodians regarding their care. Although various laws govern the powers of the police in different juris- dictions (1), the basic principles remain the same (2,3). If an individual who is detained in police custody appears to be suffering from a mental or physical illness and needs medical attention or has sustained any injuries whether at arrest or before arrest, such attention should be sought as soon as possible. Increasingly, the police have to deal with individuals who misuse alcohol and drugs or are mentally disordered; if the detainee’s behavior raises concern, medical advice should be sought. Custody staff should also seek medical advice if an individual requests a doctor or requires medication or if the custody staff members suspect that the detainee is suffering from an infectious disease and need advice. In some areas, when a person under arrest is discharged from the hospital and taken to a police station, a doctor is called to review the detainee and assess whether he or she is fit to be detained and fit for interview (4). Medical assessments of detainees may be performed by either a doctor or a nurse retained to attend the police station (5,6) or by staff in the local hospital accident and emergency department (7). The basic principles on which doctors should base their conduct have already been outlined in Chapter 2. The health and welfare of detainees should be paramount, with any forensic considerations of secondary importance. The role of any physician in this field should be independent, professional, courteous, and nonjudgmental. If the police bring a detainee to the accident and emergency department or if the health professional is contacted by the police to attend the police station, it is important to find out why a medical assessment is required. It is essential that the doctor or nurse be properly briefed by the custody staff or investigating officer (Table 1). Fully informed consent from the detainee should be obtained after explaining the reason for the examination. Detainees should understand that they are under no obligation to give consent and that there is no right to abso- lute confidentiality. Notwithstanding the latter, custody staff should be given only that information necessary for them to care for detainees while they are in police detention. Such information will include details of any medical con- cerns, required observations, medication, and dietary requirements. Although those detained in police custody are usually young, there remains the potential for considerable morbidity and mortality among this group. There- fore, it is essential that a full medical assessment be performed and detailed con- temporaneous notes made. A sufficient quantity of medication should be prescribed to cover the time in detention. The medication should be given to the police in appropri- ately labeled individual containers or sachets; alternatively, medication may be prescribed and collected from the local pharmacist. It is most important that there is a safe regimen for medication administra- tion to detainees. Records should be kept showing that the prescribed medica- tion is given at the correct time and that any unused medicines are accounted for. Ideally, police personnel should ensure that when administering medication they are accompanied by another person as a witness, and the detainee should be observed taking the medication to prevent hoarding. If detainees are arrested with medications on their persons, medical advice should be sought regarding whether they should be allowed to self-administer them. It may be prudent for a physical assessment to be performed either in the custody suite or in the local hospital before self-administration of medications. Medication brought with the prisoner or collected from the home address should be checked to ensure that it has the correct name and dosage and that the quantity left is consistent with the date of issue. If there is doubt, police person- nel should verify with the pharmacist, family doctor, or hospital. If the medicine is unlabeled, it is preferable to issue a new prescription, especially with liquid preparations, such as methadone. The detainee should have access to food and fluids as appropriate and should also have a period of rest of 8 hours during each 24 hours. Epilepsy Many detainees state that they have “fits” and there is a need to differen- tiate, if possible, between epilepsy and seizures related to withdrawal from alcohol or benzodiazepines; it is also important to consider hypoglycemia. The type of seizure should be ascertained, together with the frequency and date of the most recent one. Treatment may be given if the detainee is in posses- sion of legitimate medication; however, if he or she is intoxicated with alcohol or other central nervous system-depressant drugs, treatment should generally be deferred until the detainee is no longer intoxicated. The custody staff should have basic first aid skills to enable them to deal with medical emergencies, such as what to do when someone has a fit. If a detainee with known epilepsy has a seizure while in custody, a medical assess- ment is advisable, although there is probably no need for hospitalization. How- ever, if a detainee with known epilepsy has more than one fit or a detainee has a “first-ever” fit while in custody, then transfer to a hospital is recommended. Diazepam intravenously or rectally is the treatment of choice for status epilepticus (11).
See Alexander The Psychology of the Unconscious rakta (blood) 34 Technique (Jung) 70 rakta moksha 136 potassium chloride 24 psychosomatic disease 131 Ramakrishna Order 166 potassium phosphate 24 psychosomatic medicine Ramakrishna Paramhansa 165 order sildigra 25mg on-line erectile dysfunction zocor, potassium sulfate 24 and behavioral medicine 166 poultice buy sildigra with a mastercard erectile dysfunction symptoms, herbal 127 18 Ramdas purchase cheap sildigra erectile dysfunction protocol scam or not, Papa 167 PowerBreathing 170 definition of 18 rapeseed oil 109 The Power of Positive Thinking Dunbar’s work in 35, 36 rasa (plasma) 34, 136 (Peale) 125 PubMed 90, 98 rasayana 136 272 The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Rauch, Erich, Health Through restorative 139 Sacro-Occipital Technique Inner Body Cleansing 83 rice 47 (S. See seasonal affective Ravensara aromatica 117 Rickey, Branch 125 disorder Ray, Kali 169 Rig-Veda 165 Sagan, Carl 201 rebirthing 136 Rimland, Bernard 120 sage oil 117 reconstructive therapy 136 Rio de Janeiro, Museum of St. See aromatherapy biofeedback for 19 Rubenfeld, Ilana 139 Scheel, John 197 breathing techniques for 22 Rubenfeld Synergy Center 139, Schizophrenia (journal) 120 floatation therapy for 46 187 Schuessler, W. See Sacro-Occipital The Seat of the Soul (Zukav) Love, Medicine & Miracles 10, Technique 173 43, 143 soul therapy. See flower Self Matters: Creating Your Life Siegler Center for Integrative remedies from the Inside Out (McGraw) Medicine xi Sound, Listening and Learning xix Sieglinger, Frank 33 Center 187 Selye, Hans 141–142 Signorini, Andrea 18–19 Sound Healers Association 187 Semicarpus anacardium 13 Homeopathy, a Frontier in Sound Health Research Institute Senate, U. See SomatoEmotional silver 32 cymatics 32 Release Similars, Law of 56, 75 aquasonics in 8, 32 sexual (root) chakra 25, 139, Simonton, O. Norman 142 Point Candidate Book xix healing American Holistic Medical smartweed 139 spirulina 50 Association founded by smell. See aromatherapy spontaneous healing xxi, 142 Smith, Fritz 173 (remission) 139, 143, on triage by physicians xx smoking cessation, for anxiety 8 145–146 Shealy Institute 142 smudging 99 sports massage 82 Sheddon, Peter 120–121 Soaring Crane qigong 133 Srinivasan 171 shen 142 Society for Light Treatment and star of bethlehem 17 Shen, Ronger 133–134 Biological Rhythms 187 Stead, Eugene A. See also light 87 34 therapy stimulant 146 274 The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine stomach wash 146 symptoms Thornburg, Raymond 125 Stone, Randolph 127 in remedy picture 138–139 throat chakra 26 stone massage 83 subclinical 147 thrombin 39 Straus, Stephen E. See transcutaneous Therapeutic 72, 73, 83, Sutherland, William Garner electrical nerve stimulation 150 31 Textbook of Dr. Vodder’s Manual tourmaline, clear 32 Sutra 164 Lymph Drainage (Wittlinger toxins, as ama 6 Svaroopa yoga 170–171 and Wittlinger) 77 Trager, Milton 151 Svatmarama, Yogindra 166 Thacher, C. See sweet flag 109 thiamine 157 Native American healing sycotic miasm 85 thigh douche 59 practices sympathetic nervous system Thomson, Samuel 21, tridoshas 34, 154. See Therapeutic Touch in macrobiotic diet 79–80 in Five Elements 46 tui na 2 Verus, Lucius Aurelius 49 in flotation therapy 46 turquoise 32 vervain 17 in hydrotherapy 58–61 The Twelve Healers and Other veterinary medicine. See pet(s) watercress 47 Remedies (Bach) 15 vetivert oil 118 water violet 17 The Twelve Tissue Remedies of vibrational medicine 157. See wax, paraffin, in hyperthermia Schuessler (Boericke and also specific types 61–62 Dewey) 21 definition of xviii Weil, Andrew 159, 201 effects of depression in 33–34 wei qi 133 Gerber on xviii Weiss, Brian L. Samuel, The Golden U Vilayat Khan, Pir 67 Seven Plus One 77 ulcers, Chinese herbs for 27 vine 17 The West Point Candidate Book ultrasound, hyperthermia with Viniyoga 171 (Smallwood) xix 61, 62 violet wheat grass 50 Upanishads 165 Fringed 12 White, Ganga 171 Upledger, John E. See World Health 234–235 visualization Organization usnea 7 in guided imagery 50 Wholeness and the Implicate Order Usui, Mikao 137, 159 in Imaginal Therapy 67 (Bohm) 21 vital force 157 Why People Don’t Heal and How vitalism 157 They Can (Myss) 87 vitamin(s) 157–158 Wilde, Stuart, Affirmations 5 V vitamin A 157 wild oat 17 Vacaspati Mishra 164 vitamin B 158 wild rose 17 vaccines vitamin B1 157 willow 17, 148 as homeopathy 56 vitamin C 119, 158 wintergreen oil 118 Law of Similars in 75 vitamin D 158 Wittlinger, H. Donald 168 on homeopathy 57 276 The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Worrall, Olga 126 yarrow oil 118 yogi 164 wraps yeast infections 157 yogurt 47 herbal 8, 55, 61 yellow bile 58 You Don’t Have to Die (Hoxsey) in hydrotherapy 60–61 yellow fever 57 58 Wright, Carol 130 yin 163 Wright, Donald F. See also specific Zak, Victor 23–24 X types zanfu zhi qi 173 xenobiotics 161 branches of 168–172 zang 163 xian 161 definition of 164 zang fu 173 xin 161 history of 164–165 zanthoxylum oil 118 X rays, chiropractic 161 important figures in zero balancing 173 xu 161 164–168 zheng qi 133, 173 writings on 164–165 Zikr 173 YogaDance 171–172 zone therapy 173. See also Yoga Makarandam reflexology Y (Krishnamacharya) 167 zong qi 133, 173 Yajur-Veda 165 Yogananda, Paramhansa 167, Zukav, Gary 173 yama 164, 165 168, 169 Zulu culture 141 Yamamoto, Shizuko 79 Yoga-Sutra 164, 165, 166 yang 163 Yoga Zone Studios 169 . No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. The right of Steven B Kayne to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988. Contents Preface vii About the editor ix Contributors x 1 Introduction to traditional medicine 1 Steven Kayne 2 Traditional European folk medicine 25 Owen Davies 3 Aboriginal/traditional medicine in North America: a practical approach for practitioners 44 John K Crellin 4 Traditional medicine used by ethnic groups in the Colombian Amazon tropical forest, South America 65 Blanca Margarita Vargas de Corredor and Ann Mitchell (Simpson) 5 Traditional medical practice in Africa 82 Gillian Scott 6 Traditional Chinese medicine 119 Steven Kayne and Tony Booker 7 Indian ayurvedic medicine 195 Steven Kayne 8 Japanese kampo medicine 225 Haruki Yamada vi | Contents 9 Korean medicine 257 Seon Ho Kim, Bong-Hyun Kim and Il-Moo Chang 10 Traditional medicines in the Pacific 270 Rosemary Beresford 11 Traditional Jewish medicine 293 Kenneth Collins Index 317 Preface My good friend, Dr Gill Scott, and I were sitting in the gardens of the Mount Nelson Hotel (affectionately known as ‘The Nellie’) in Cape Town discussing Traditional African Medicine. We both thought that it would be good to bring descriptions of a representative number of traditional medical systems together in one text, aimed at academics, students and interested members of the public. Over one-third of the population in developing countries lack access to essential medicines. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America use tradi- tional medicine to help meet some of their primary health care needs. In Africa, up to 80% of the population uses traditional medicine for primary health care. The provision of safe and effective Traditional Medicine Therapies could become a critical tool to increase access to health care. Migration, both within countries and across continents, means that host communities, in particular health care providers working in multicultural environments, may well come into contact with unfamiliar practices. A compact yet wide ranging source of knowledge such as that provided in this book will help them understand the basics of medical systems that are being used by patients, often concurrently with western medicine. However, health care providers need more than just knowledge, for it is necessary to understand and effectively interact with people across cultures. With this in mind a method by which orthodox health care providers can approach patients using their traditional practices in a sympathetic manner is introduced in Chapter 3. Although it specifically refers to North American aboriginal medicine it can be adapted to other health care environments. This book covers medical systems practised on five continents, chosen to offer readers an awareness of different approaches to health care around the world. For example, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, two complete health systems that form the basis of almost all Asian medi- cine, are covered in detail, using material derived from both observation and published literature. Medicine from the Amazonian region of Colombia is presented through a series of fascinating interviews with local healers that viii | Preface emphasises the importance of ritualistic practice. Chapters on Japanese, Korean and Traditional Medicine in the Pacific provide an insight into the way other cultures have contributed to the development of their health care practices. Two chapters on folk medicine are also included: one covers the history and practice of secular and ecclesiastical practices with their origins across the continent of Europe, while the other seeks to demonstrate the wide ranging influence that a global religion can have on the health care of its believers. As well as authoring, editing and contributing chapters to many books, Dr Kayne has written numerous papers and journal articles on a variety of topics associated with health care and has presented at conferences as an invited speaker on four continents. Associate Dean of Graduate Studies in Health Sciences, and finally Associate Dean of phar- macy admissions and undergraduate programmes before retiring in 2008. Dr Beresford’s many academic and other contributions to the pharmacy profession in New Zealand were recognised by her appointment as an honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand in 2004 and acceptance into the International Academy of History of Pharmacy in 2005. She was created an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit ‘for services to medicine’, in 2007. Dr Beresford currently holds honorary appointments as Associate Professor at the Universities of Hong Kong and Auckland. He works as a practitioner in several clinics in Kent and maintains his own Chinese herbal dispensary integrated within an allopathic pharmacy. He has a particular interest in the treatment of debilitating conditions such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. He is President of the Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine and, since 2005, has sat on the Herbal Medicines Advisory Committee. Professor Chang has written more than 120 research papers, 22 book chapters and monographs, including Treatise on Asian Herbal Medicines (9 volumes, 8804 pages). He is a Research Fellow at the Centre for the History of Medicine at the University of Glasgow and has written widely on medical ethics, the medical aspects of Jewish immigration, and the medical practice of the great mediaeval physician and philosopher Rabbi Moses Maimonides. Blanca Margarita Vargas de Corredor Blanca Margarita Vargas de Corredor has spent over 30 years working on traditional medicine and conservation projects with different indigenous groups such as Uitotos, Muinanes, Andokes, Yukuna-Matapi, Tikuna, Cocama in the Caquetá medio region of the Colombian Amazon rain forest.