By N. Jens. South Carolina State University. 2019.
In medical terminolo- is the basic foundation to which other word gy purchase generic tadapox online causes of erectile dysfunction in late 30s, a suffix usually describes a pathology (disease elements are added to build a complete medical or abnormality) buy 80 mg tadapox overnight delivery erectile dysfunction 40s, symptom cheap tadapox 80 mg mastercard erectile dysfunction net doctor, surgical or diagnostic word. Many suffixes as word root/vowel (such as gastr/o), as illustrated are derived from Greek or Latin words. Learning combining forms rather than word roots makes pronunciation a little easier because of the terminal vowel. For example, in the table below, the word roots gastr and nephr are difficult to pronounce, whereas their combining forms gastr/o and nephr/o are easier to pronounce. Word Root Vowel Combining Form Meaning erythr/ o erythr/o red gastr/ o gastr/o stomach hepat/ o hepat/o liver immun/ o immun/o immune, immunity, safe nephr/ o nephr/o kidney oste/ o = oste/o bone Table 1-3 Examples of Suffixes This table lists examples of pathological suffixes as well as their phonetic pronunciations. In A prefix is a word element attached to the beginning this case, the suffix -itis, which means inflam- of a word or word root. When you analyze gastroenteritis Basic Guidelines following the three previous rules, the meaning is: Defining and building medical words are crucial skills in mastering medical terminology. Defining Medical Words Thus, the meaning of gastroenteritis is inflam- Here are three basic steps for defining medical mation (of ) stomach (and) intestine. Table 1-4 Examples of Prefixes This table lists examples of prefixes as well as their phonetic pronunciations. Combining Form Middle Suffix gastr/o enter/ -itis stomach intestine inflammation (step 2) (step 3) (step 1) Basic Guidelines 5 Building Medical Words Rule #3 There are three basic rules for building medical A combining form links a root to another root to words. This rule holds true even if the next root begins with a vowel, as in osteoarthritis. Rule #1 Keep in mind that the rules for linking multiple roots A word root links a suffix that begins with a to each other are slightly different from the rules for vowel. Also, pronunciation guide- Although pronunciations of medical words usually lines can be found on the inside front cover of this follows the same rules that govern pronunciations book and at the end of selected tables. Use them of English words, some medical words may be whenever you need help with pronunciation of difficult to pronounce when first encountered. It is Time to review pronunciations, analysis of word elements, and defining medical terms by completing Learning Activities 1-3, 1-4, and 1-5. Complete each activity and review your answers to evaluate your understand- ing of this chapter. Learning Activity 1-1 Understanding Medical Word Elements Fill in the following blanks to complete the sentences correctly. True False _____________________________________________________________________________________ Underline the word root in each of following combining forms. When pn is at the beginning of a word, it is pronounced only with the sound of (p, n). When e and es form the final letter or letters of a word, they are commonly pronounced as (combined, separate) syllables. Then analyze each term and write the element that is a prefix in the right-hand column. Correct Answers 10 % Score Learning Activities 11 Learning Activity 1-5 Defining Medical Words The three basic steps for defining medical words are: 1. If you are not certain of a definition, refer to Appendix C, Part 1, of this textbook, which provides an alphabetical list of word elements and their meanings. Write the number for the rule that applies to each listed term as well as a short summary of the rule. Surgical, Diagnostic, Pathological, and Related • Determine how to link combining forms and word Suffixes roots to various types of suffixes. Multiple word roots In medical words, a suffix is added to the end of a within a compound word are always changed to word root or combining form to change its mean- combining forms so that the roots are joined togeth- ing. For example, the combining form gastr/o er with a combining vowel, regardless of whether the means stomach. The suffix -megaly means enlarge- second word root begins with a vowel or a conso- ment, and -itis means inflammation. Notice that a combining vowel is used in the is an enlargement of the stomach; gastr/itis is an Table 2–2 between gastr and enter, even though the inflammation of the stomach. Suffixes are also used to denote singular and is slightly different from the rules for linking word plural forms of a word as well as a part of speech. Recall from Chapter 1 that suffix- The following tables provide additional examples es that begin with a vowel are linked with a word to reinforce the rules you learned in Chapter 1. Table 2-1 Word Roots and Combining Forms with Suffixes This table provides examples of word roots used to link a suffix that begins with a vowel. It also lists combining forms (root o) used to link a suffix that begins with a consonant. By grouping the surgical, diagnostic, dure or test performed to identify the cause and pathological, related, as well as grammatical suffix- nature of an illness. Table 2-3 Common Surgical Suffixes This table lists commonly used surgical suffixes along with their meanings and word analyses. It is time to review surgical suffixes by completing Learning Activities 2–1, 2–2, and 2–3. Table 2-4 Diagnostic, Pathological, and Related Suffixes This table lists commonly used diagnostic, pathological, and related suffixes along with their meanings and word analyses. It is time to review diagnostic, pathological, and related suffixes by completing Learning Activities 2–4 and 2–5. Many of these same form parts of speech, such as adjectives and nouns, suffixes are used in the English language. When a word Plural Suffixes changes from a singular to a plural form, the suf- Many medical words have Greek or Latin ori- fix of the word is the part that changes. A sum- gins and follow the rules of these languages mary of the rules for changing a singular word in building singular and plural forms. Once into its plural form is located on the inside back you learn these rules, you will find that they are cover of this textbook. You will also find that some Learning Activity 2–7 and whenever you need English endings have also been adopted for com- help forming plural words. It is time to review the rules for forming plural words by completing Learning Activity 2–7. Complete each activity and review your answers to evaluate your understanding of the chapter. Learning Activity 2-1 Building Surgical Words Use the meanings in the right column to complete the surgical words in the left column. Correct Answers 5 % Score *Information in parentheses is used to clarify the meaning of the word but not to build the medical term. Note: If you are not satisfied with your level of comprehension in Learning Activity 2–1, review it and complete the exercise again. Learning Activities 23 Learning Activity 2-2 Building More Surgical Words Use the meanings in the right column to complete the surgical words in the left column. Correct Answers 5 % Score *Information in parentheses is used to clarify the meaning of the word but not to build the medical term. Correct Answers 5 % Score *Information in parentheses is used to clarify the meaning of the word but not to build the medical term. Learning Activities 25 Learning Activity 2-4 Selecting Diagnostic, Pathological, and Related Suffixes Use the suffixes in this list to build diagnostic, pathological, and related words in the right column that reflect the meanings in the left column.
Finally discount tadapox 80 mg line which antihypertensive causes erectile dysfunction, the subdural windows should be exam- ined for any hemorrhage that may not be visualized easily on the tissue windows purchase 80mg tadapox with mastercard erectile dysfunction drug mechanism. Computed tomography scans may be used for classiﬁcation as well as for diagnostic purposes buy 80mg tadapox otc erectile dysfunction or gay. Skull Fractures: Skull fractures are classiﬁed as either nondisplaced (linear) fractures or comminuted fractures. A comminuted frac- ture may be displaced inward, which is deﬁned as a depressed skull fracture. Intracranial Hemorrhages: Intracranial hemorrhages are divided into two broad categories: extraaxial hematomas and intraaxial hema- tomas (Table 32. Intraaxial hematomas Extraaxial hematomas Intracerebral hematoma Epidural hematoma Subarachnoid hemorrhage Subdural hematoma Cerebral contusion Extraaxial hematomas include epidural and subdural hematomas. They typically are biconvex in shape because their outer border follows the inner table of the skull, and their inner border is limited by locations where the dura is ﬁrmly adherent to the skull (Fig. Epidural hematomas usually are caused by injury to a dural-based artery, although 10% of epidurals may be venous in origin. Their outer edge is convex, while their inner border usually is irregularly concave (Fig. Subdural hematomas are not limited by the intracranial suture lines, and this is an important feature that aids in their differentiation from epidural hematomas. Subdural hematomas usually are venous in origin, although some are due to arterial bleeding. Cere- bral contusions are posttraumatic lesions in the brain that appear as irregular, heterogeneous regions in which hyperintense changes (blood) and low-density changes (edema) are intermixed (Fig. Shepard Intraventricular hemorrhages are regions of high intensity within the ventricular system. Subarachnoid hemorrhages that occur as a result of trauma typically are located over gyri on the convexity of the brain. These are thin layers of high-intensity signal located on the surface of the cortex. They are distinct from the subarachnoid hemorrhages that occur as the result of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, which usually are located in the arachnoid cisterns at the base of the brain. This is due to its long acquisition time and the difﬁculty of using it in the crit- ically ill. Diffuse axonal injury is deﬁned as neuronal injury in the subcortical gray matter or the brainstem as a result of severe rotation or deceleration. Currently, angiography is used in acute head injury only when there is the sus- picion of a vascular injury. This concept is deﬁned by the Monro-Kellie doctrine, which states that the total intracranial volume is ﬁxed. Since the intracranial volume is ﬁxed, unless there is some com- pensatory action, such as a decrease in the volume of one of the other intracranial components, the intracranial pressure will rise. This is related intimately to intracranial compliance, which is deﬁned as the change in pressure due to changes in volume. The brain has very limited compliance and cannot tolerate signiﬁcant increases in volume that can result from diffuse cerebral edema or signiﬁcant mass lesions, such as a hematoma. Autoregulation also is impaired in the injured brain, and, as a result, there is pressure passive perfusion within and around injured regions of the brain. The intracranial compartment is divided into three compartments by two major dural structures, the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli. As the brain slides over these dural edges, it compresses other regions of the brain (e. There are ﬁve types of herniation: transtentorial herniation, subfalcine herniation, central herniation, cerebellar herniation,andtonsillar herniation. Transtentorial herniation occurs when the medial aspect of the tempo- ral lobe (uncus) migrates across the free edge of the tentorium. This compresses the third cranial nerve, interrupting parasympathetic input to the eye and resulting in a dilated pupil. This unilateral dilated pupil is the classic sign of transtentorial herniation and usually (80%) occurs ipsilateral to the side of the transtentorial herniation. While there is signiﬁcant overlap in the treatment of these two types of injury, there are some important differences that are discussed later in this chapter. Closed head injury treatment is divided further into the treatment of mild and moderate/severe head injuries. Herniation syndrome Mechanism Transtentorial herniation Medial temporal lobe is displaced across the tentorial edge Subfalcine herniation Medial frontal lobe is displaced under the falx Central (downward) herniation Cerebral hemisphere(s) is displaced down through the tentorial incisura Cerebellar (upward) herniation Cerebellum is displaced up through the tentorial incisura Tonsillar herniation Cerebellar tonsils are displaced through the foramen magnum 32. Brain Trauma Foundation, American Associa- tion of Neurological Surgeons, Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. Shepard Closed Head Injury Mild Head Injury Treatment The majority of head injuries are mild head injuries. Most people pre- senting with mild head injuries do not have any progression of their head injury; however, up to 3% of mild head injuries progress to more serious injuries. Patients with mild to moderate headaches, dizziness, and nausea are considered to have a low-risk injury. Most of these patients require only observation after they have been assessed carefully, and many do not require radiographic evaluation. These patients may be discharged if there is a reliable individual to monitor them at home. A concussion is deﬁned as physiologic injury to the brain without any evidence of structural alteration, as in the case presented. Loss of consciousness frequently occurs in concussions, but it is not part of the deﬁnition of concussion. Concussions may be graded on a scale of I to V based on criteria such as length of confusion, type of amnesia following the event, and length of loss of consciousness (Table 32. The initial resus- citation of a head-injured patient is of critical importance to prevent hypoxia and hypotension. Subdural/epidural hematoma resulting in midline shift >5mm Intracerebral hematoma >30cc Temporal or cerebellar hematoma with diameter >3cm Open skull fracture Skull fracture with displacement >1cm mortality rate of those patients who were normotensive on presenta- tion4. The combination of hypoxia and hypotension resulted in a mor- tality rate two-and-one-half times greater than if both of these factors were absent. If there is a surgical lesion present, then arrangements are made for immediate transport to the operating room. Although there are no strict guidelines for deﬁning surgical lesions in head injury, most neurosurgeons consider any of the following to rep- resent indications for surgery in the head-injured patient: extraaxial hematoma with midline shift greater than 5mm, intraaxial hematoma with volume >30cc, an open skull fracture, or a depressed skull frac- ture with more than 1cm of inward displacement (Table 32. Also, any temporal or cerebellar hematoma that is greater than 3cm in diam- eter usually is evacuated prophylactically because these regions of the brain do not tolerate additional mass as well as other regions of the brain. After appropriate ﬂuid resuscitation has been completed, intravenous ﬂuids are administered to maintain the patient in a state of euvolemia or mild hypervolemia. If a patient is hypovolemic, elevation of the head may cause a drop in cardiac output and cerebral blood ﬂow. Also, the head should not be elevated in patients in whom a spine injury is suspected or until an unstable spine has been stabilized.
Enzyme release from dead cells perfusion purchase tadapox 80 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction ayurvedic drugs in india, enzyme half-life buy tadapox 80mg with visa impotence urologist, molecular size buy generic tadapox on line erectile dysfunction doctors in massachusetts, and B. Decreased perfusion of the tissue γ-glutamyltransferase, are produced and secreted at a D. Increased production and secretion by cells greater rate in obstructive liver disease. D No enzyme is truly tissue speciﬁc and diagnostic processes/Enzymes/2 accuracy depends upon recognizing changes in plasma 9. Which of the following enzymes is considered levels that characterize diﬀerent diseases. Te lactate-to-pyruvate reaction is optimized at The pH optimum for the forward reaction is pH 7. Which condition produces the highest elevation myocardial infarction, necrotic liver disease, and of serum lactate dehydrogenase? Smallest elevations are seen Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory in obstructive jaundice and highest in hepatic data/Lactate dehydrogenase/2 carcinoma and toxic hepatitis, where levels can reach 10-fold the upper reference limit. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase ﬂuid is usually: in chest ﬂuid is often caused by lung malignancy, A. Use of plasma collected in heparin Chemistry/Apply knowledge to recognize sources of error/Lactate dehydrogenase/3 266 Chapter 5 | Clinical Chemistry 18. Block the oxidation of glutathione can occur when adenylate kinase is present in the C. C When a competitive inhibitor is present in the serum, on an automated analyzer using an optimized a dilution of the sample will cause an increase in the Oliver–Rosalki method gives an error ﬂag reaction rate by reducing the concentration of the indicating substrate depletion. An error has been made in calculating the enzyme activity of one of the two dilutions Chemistry/Apply knowledge to recognize sources of error/Creatine kinase/3 5. What is the stable at room temperature for about 4 hours and up best course of action and the reason for it? C Serum myoglobin becomes abnormal within injections 1–2 hours after an acute myocardial infarction C. Te presence of increased TnI as muscular dystrophy, there is a persistent elevation D. Which statement best describes the clinical utility dystrophy, malignant hyperthermia, or crush of plasma or serum myoglobin? The upper limit of but is more sensitive normal is approximately 90 μg/L for males and 75 μg/L D. Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to recognize health However, speciﬁcity is approximately 75%–85% owing and disease states/Cardiac markers/2 to skeletal muscle injury or renal insuﬃciency. A value above the cutoﬀ returns to normal in 8 hours must be conﬁrmed using a cardiac speciﬁc assay such B. Abnormal within 2 hours; peaks within within 1–2 hours, peaks within 8–12 hours and 12 hours; returns to normal in 36 hours returns to normal within 36 hours. Abnormal within 6 hours; peaks within reach a peak concentration that is 10-fold the upper 24 hours; returns to normal in 72 hours reference limit. Abnormal within 3 hours; peaks within marker such as TnI, or TnT must be performed at 12 hours; returns to normal in 24 hours some point to conﬁrm the diagnosis. Abnormal within 4 hours; peaks within function as a regulator of actin and tropomyosin. The 24 hours; returns to normal in 1 week three subunits are designated TnC, TnI, and TnT. Abnormal within 6 hours; peaks within are present in both cardiac and some skeletal muscles, 36 hours; returns to normal in 5 days but cardiac and skeletal isoforms of TnI and TnT can Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to recognize health be diﬀerentiated by speciﬁc antiseras. TnT and TnI have the same sensitivity, but TnT is more commonly elevated in renal failure patients. Both are increased slightly in unstable angina (chest pain while at rest) and cardiac ischemia. B The American College of Cardiology recommends the (upper limit of normal) for detecting myocardial cutoﬀ for an abnormal troponin test be set at the 99th infarction? Te cutoﬀ varies with the method of assay but if the assay precision at this level is >10% then the should be no lower than 0. Te concentration corresponding to the lowest of ischemic changes indicates cardiac damage. Te highest value ﬁtting under the area of the troponin concentration is seen over the ﬁrst 6 hours curve for the 95% conﬁdence interval after initial testing. B Persons with unstable angina (angina at rest) who have an elevated TnT or TnI are at eight times greater 32. This consistently increased in persons who exhibit property is being used to identify short-term risk unstable angina? Tree hours later, the myoglobin is (reference range for females is approximately 14 μg/L and the troponin I is 0. Tese results are consistent with skeletal muscle cause an increase in cardiac TnI. Spurious false positives caused by matrix eﬀects Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to recognize health usually revert to normal when the test is repeated on and disease states/Cardiac markers/2 a new sample. A third sample collected 6 hours a result of oxygen deprivation, free radicals are later gives a result of 0. A false-positive result occurred due to matrix This ischemia-modified albumin can be measured interference by its inability to bind cobalt. Te patient has suﬀered cardiac injury with the free cobalt, forming a colored complex. Te patient has had an ischemic episode without The absorbance of the reaction mixture is directly cardiac injury proportional to the ischemia-modified albumin Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to recognize health concentration. Which of the following laboratory tests is a marker muscle during an ischemic episode. Free fatty acid binding protein Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ Cardiac markers/1 5. Which test becomes abnormal in the earliest stage Answers to Questions 37–38 of the acute coronary syndrome? High-sensitivity C-reactive protein formation of a plaque comprised of lipid from dead endothelium that proliferates into the artery lumen. This signals the transition to more lung disease advanced disease in which ischemia to heart muscle B. C B-type natriuretic peptide is a hormone produced by the ventricles in response to increased intracardiac blood volume and hydrostatic pressure. Which statement best describes the clinical utility Answers to Questions 39–43 of plasma homocysteine? B Homocysteine includes the monomeric amino acid cholesterol in plasma as well as the dimers such as homocystine that B. Plasma levels are measured as atherosclerosis and increased risk of thrombosis an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Persons who have an elevated plasma High levels of homocysteine are toxic to vascular homocysteine will also have an increased endothelium and promote inﬂammation and plaque plasma Lp(a) formation.
A curved gram-negative rod producing Answers to Questions 1–4 oxidase-positive colonies on blood agar was recovered from a stool culture 80mg tadapox otc erectile dysfunction remedies natural. In the test best 80 mg tadapox how to fix erectile dysfunction causes, a Microbiology/Evaluate laboratory data to make loopful of bacterial colonies is suspended in sodium identiﬁcations/Bacteria/3 deoxycholate 80 mg tadapox with amex impotence of organic organ, 0. Pseudomonas putida any but the most aerotolerant Campylobacter to Microbiology/Evaluate laboratory data to make survive. Cultures for Campylobacter should be identiﬁcations/Bacteria/3 incubated for 48–72 hours before reporting no growth. Which group of tests best diﬀerentiates Answers to Questions 5–8 Helicobacter pylori from C. Catalase, oxidase, and nalidixic acid sensitivity secretions and biopsies and has been implicated C. Urease, nitrate, and hippurate hydrolysis mucus-secreting epithelial cells of the stomach. Catalase Nalidixic acid sensitivity Resistant Sensitive Microbiology/Select methods/Reagents/Media/Bacteria/ Identiﬁcation/2 6. Which is the best rapid test to diﬀerentiate well as cellulitis and wound infections. Infections Plesiomonas shigelloides from a Shigella species on usually follow exposure to contaminated soil, water, selective enteric agar? Urease because most strains grow on selective enteric agar Microbiology/Select methods/Reagents/Media/Bacteria/ as lactose fermenters. B Both of these bacteria cause diarrhea, grow Identiﬁcation/2 well on enteric agar, and may be confused with Enterobacteriaceae. Both organisms are positive for oxidase, motility, indole, and lysine decarboxylase. Which genus (in which most species are oxidase Answers to Questions 9–12 and catalase positive) of small gram-negative coccobacilli is associated mainly with animals but 9. Vibrio most common human isolate is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which grows slowly on Microbiology/Apply fundamental biological chocolate agar. It is positive for catalase, nitrate characteristics/Bacteria/2 reduction, and glucose fermentation. Which of the following tests may be used to grow on MacConkey agar and is negative for diﬀerentiate Cardiobacterium hominis from oxidase, urease, indole, X, and V requirements. Oxidase oxidase and negative for nitrate reduction, while Microbiology/Select methods/Reagents/Media/Bacteria/ most Actinobacillus are negative for oxidase and Identiﬁcation/2 positive for nitrate reduction. The Urease = Neg Lysine decarboxylase = + organism causes a pitting of the agar where colonies Oxidase = + X and V requirement = Neg are located. The smell of bleach may be apparent Indole = Neg Carbohydrates = Neg when the plates are uncovered for examination. Kingella kingae can best be diﬀerentiated from Eikenella corrodens using which medium? Kingella kingae is usually associated with which Answers to Questions 13–17 type of infection? Infection is seen primarily in patients having underlying heart disease, poor oral hygiene, Microbiology/Apply fundamental biological or iatrogenic mucosal ulcerations (e. Microbiology/Evaluate laboratory data to make are also catalase and oxidase positive but can be identiﬁcations/Bacteria/3 ruled out because they grow on MacConkey agar and do not produce indole. Smooth gray colonies showing no hemolysis are recovered from an infected cat scratch on blood 16. Te organisms are gram-negative pleomorphic round colonies resembling droplets of mercury. It is rods that are both catalase and oxidase positive fastidious and does not grow on chocolate or and strongly indole positive. Bordet–Gengou agar agar slant is simultaneously coated with the blood (or bone marrow). Brucella is the cause of undulant Microbiology/Select methods/Reagents/Media/Bacteria/ fever and is responsible for many cases of fever of Identiﬁcation/2 unknown origin. Which medium is recommended for the recovery intracellular organisms and grow very slowly, usually of Brucella spp. Histidine and tryptophan prepared chocolate agar because it contains X factor and is supplemented with a growth enrichment Microbiology/Apply fundamental biological (IsoVitaleX) that contains cysteine. Haemophilus species that require the V factor before it can be assimilated by Haemophilus spp. Blood agar made with sheep red cells available to those Haemophilus species requiring it. Blood agar made with horse red cells Chocolate agar also contains the X factor (hemin). Xylose agar require V factor, while X factor is required by Microbiology/Select methods/Reagents/Media/Bacteria/ H. Which of the following products is responsible Answers to Questions 23–24 for satellite growth of Haemophilus spp. Which of the following plates should be used in these two species from other Haemophilus with the order to identify Haemophilus haemolyticus and same X and V requirements. Sheep blood agar and chocolate agar yeast extract, supports the growth of Haemophilus B. Sheep blood agar is not used because it X and V strips contains growth inhibitors for some Haemophilus C. The chart on the next page summarizes the added characteristics of the Haemophilus spp. Chocolate agar and Mueller–Hinton agar with X factor added Microbiology/Select methods/Reagents/Media/Bacteria/ Identiﬁcation/2 412 Chapter 7 | Microbiology H. Te majority of Haemophilus inﬂuenzae infections Answers to Questions 25–28 are caused by which of the following capsular serotypes? Serotyping of Haemophilus is Microbiology/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ performed by mixing colonies with agglutinating Bacteria/Haemophilus/2 antibodies available as commercial agglutination kits. Which Haemophilus species is diﬃcult to isolate genital lesions referred to as “soft chancres. Most specimens are recovered from Microbiology/Correlate clinical and laboratory heterosexuals, and outbreaks in the United States data/Bacteria/Haemophilus/2 are traced to female prostitutes. All of these options Microbiology/Apply fundamental biological characteristics/Bacteria/1 7. A The X factor requirement for growth is the cause of Which is the most likely identiﬁcation? Haemophilus aphrophilus colonies transferred from primary media containing Microbiology/Evaluate laboratory data to make blood. Nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured on 15% blood, chocolate, Bordet–Genjou, and Regan–Lowe (with 10% charcoal) agars. Bordetella bronchiseptica Microbiology/Evaluate laboratory data to make identiﬁcations/Bacteria/3 414 Chapter 7 | Microbiology 33. Francisella tularensis Answers to Questions 33–36 Microbiology/Evaluate laboratory data to make identiﬁcations/Bacteria/3 33. Tularemia is one of the most common organism grew on 5% sheep blood and chocolate laboratory-acquired infections, and it is recommended agars displaying a yellow pigment.