By W. Enzo. Daniel Webster College. 2019.
One consistent pattern over time has been • Expanding imaginal margins involves focusing that if the theory does help cheap tadora 20mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction cvs, if it does enhance qual- on the imaging process 20mg tadora with amex erectile dysfunction normal age. Expanding imaginal ity of care and quality of work life cheap tadora 20mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction doctors in colorado springs, then it also has margins while engaging with others in coming The Teaching-Learning Process and the Theory of Human Becoming The teaching-learning process confronts the familiar-unfamiliar all-at-once. From a human becoming perspective, teaching-learning is a process of engaging with others in coming to know. The Seeker, in engaging with others, participates in simultaneous processes of coming to know at an explicit-tacit level. In imag- People who embrace this human becoming per- ing valued possibilities, one is already moving spective of teaching-learning participate in foster- with those possibilities. Naming the new in the process of engaging with others in coming to know cocreates the meaning References of the moment. Weathering the storm: Persevering • Going with content-process shifts involves a syn- through a difﬁcult time. Parse’s theory of human becoming in prac- coming to know involves the intentionality of tice with hospitalized adolescents. Feeling uncomfortable: Children in fam- to know involves honoring the tensions of con- ilies with no place of their own. The lived experience of feeling very tired: • Giving meaning involves ascribing value to ideas A study of adolescent girls. The lived experience of struggling with know involves creating one’s personal reality in making a decision in a critical life situation. A commitment to honoring people’s mosphere for conversation while being attentive choices. Research evaluating human becoming know involves participating in discerning dis- in practice. Such understanding un- Interpretation with the human becoming community change concepts. This leader: A transformational role that addresses human diver- presence involves an attentive, being with the sity. Innovations in ing with others in coming to know involves nurse retention and patient centered care. Research in Nursing • Growing story involves giving meaning to abstract & Health, 25, 58–67. Translating nursing conceptual frame- works and theory for nursing practice in the parish commu- comprehending personal realities. True presence through music for persons Advanced Practice Nursing Quarterly, 2(4), 79–84. Nursing Science model of health ministry: Living Parse’s theory of human be- Quarterly, 16, 232–238. Struggling to go along when you do not be- Parish Nurse Symposium: Parish nursing: Ministering through lieve. The lived experience of serenity: Using Parse’s re- Resource Center—Advocate Health Care. Nursing Science practice: An evaluation study of Parse’s theory of human be- Quarterly, 7, 104–112. Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 12(4), New York: National League for Nursing Press. Of life immense in passion, pulse, and University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver. Standards of nursing and the winds of practice and Parse’s theory of human becoming. Nursing Science Quarterly, becoming theory: Living true presence in nursing practice. Applying Parse’s the- of Toronto, 550 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ory to perioperative nursing: A nontraditional approach. Nursing research: becoming theory in practice in an acute care psychiatric set- Qualitative methods. Nursing Science Quarterly, 6, for nurses teaching and learning Parse’s theory of human be- 130–139. The global context of nurs- coming theory: A manual for the teaching-learning process. Hope: An international human becoming per- guided research on the lived experience of hope. Nursing Science Quarterly, human becoming hermeneutic study of a theme from 10, 124–130. The lived experience of feeling loved: A Qualitative inquiry: The path of sciencing (pp. Beyond objectivism and relativism: Illuminations: The human becoming theory in practice and re- Science, hermeneutics, and praxis. Comparison of three Parse method stud- of life and the human becoming theory: Exploring disci- ies on feeling very tired. The nurse theorists: Portraits of excellence: York: National League for Nursing Press. The lived experience of health for hospitalized the oldest old living in Scotland: A phenomenological study. The American Nurses Association code Behavioural Research Unit, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional of ethics: A reﬂection on the ethics of respect and human dig- Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada. Development of gerontological nursing the- approach to Parse’s theory-based practice. Human subjectivity: The cocreation of with nurses guided by Parse’s theory of human becoming. The Parse research method minations: The human becoming theory in practice and research through music. The lived experience of restriction- Caring frameworks and the human becoming theory. Philosophy in a new key: A study in the symbol- New York: National League for Nursing Press. Creating traditions: The art of putting it to- Patient-focused care and human becoming thought: gether. Patient-focused care on a complex con- nursing administration: Theory, research, education, and prac- tinuing care dialysis unit: Rose’s story. The human becoming theory and its re- Education: A Call for Substance: Preparing Leaders for Global search and practice methodologies. Illuminations: Newsletter for the International Consortium of Parse Scholars, Newsletter for the International Consortium of Parse Scholars, 11(3/4), 1. Nursing sionals can do to move toward a more personal and meaning- Science Quarterly, 14, 273.
Pattern manifesta- Rogers maintained that each ﬁeld purchase tadora online now erectile dysfunction treatment in the philippines, human and en- tions reveal the relative diversity purchase 20 mg tadora with mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment old age, lower frequency buy tadora with visa icd 9 code for erectile dysfunction due to diabetes, vironmental, is identiﬁed by pattern, deﬁned as and higher frequency patterning of this human- “the distinguishing characteristic of an energy ﬁeld environmental mutual ﬁeld process. A concept like sionary; and longer sleeping, longer waking, and adaptation, a change in one preceding a change in beyond waking. This view of the ongoing process of change is The ﬁelds are pandimensional, deﬁned as “a captured in Rogers’ principles of homeodynamics. Examples of pandimensionality include ance or equilibrium—is an outdated concept in the phenomena commonly labeled “paranormal” that worldview represented in Rogerian nursing science. Her three principles of homeodynamics—reso- The postulate of openness resonates throughout nancy, helicy, and integrality—describe the nature the previous discussion. In an open universe, there of change in the human-environmental field are no boundaries other than perceptual ones. Resonancy specifies the “continuous Therefore, human and environment are not sepa- change from lower to higher frequency wave pat- rated by boundaries. The energy of each ﬂows con- terns in human and environmental ﬁelds” (Rogers, tinuously through the other in an unbroken wave. Resonancy presents the way change Rogers repeatedly emphasized that person and en- occurs. Although Rogers stated that this process is vironment are energy ﬁelds—but they do not have nonlinear, she was unable to move away from the energy ﬁelds, such as auras, surrounding them. In language of “from lower to higher” in the principle an open universe, there are multiple potentials and itself, which seems to indicate a linear progression. Nothing is predetermined or foreor- Rogers (1990b) elaborated: “[I]ndividuals experi- dained. Causality breaks down, paving the way for ence lesser diversity and greater diversity... Individuals are some- their world in multiple ways, evidenced by the di- times pragmatic, sometimes imaginative, and verse manifestations of ﬁeld patterning that contin- sometimes visionary. Human and environmental micities of lower-higher frequencies work together, ﬁeld rhythms are speeding up. Integrality than viewing aging as a process of decline or as is “continuous mutual human ﬁeld and envi- “running down,” as in an entropic worldview, this ronmental ﬁeld process” (Rogers, 1990a, p. It theory views aging as a creative process whereby speciﬁes the context of change as the integral ﬁeld patterns show increasing diversity in such human-environmental ﬁeld process where person manifestations as sleeping, waking, and dreaming. Rogers hypothesized that hyperactive children Together the principles suggest that the mutual provide a good example of speeded-up rhythms patterning process of human and environmental relative to other children. They would be expected ﬁelds changes continuously, innovatively, and un- to show indications of faster rhythms, increased predictably, ﬂowing in lower and higher frequen- motion, and other behaviors indicative of this shift. They are speciﬁc to nursing and re- ness, examples of pandimensional reality that ﬂect not what nurses do, but an understanding of manifest visionary, beyond waking potentials. Nursing edu- Meditation, for example, transcends tradition- cation is identiﬁed by transmission of this theoret- ally perceived limitations of time and space, open- ical knowledge, and nursing practice is the creative ing the door to new and creative potentials. Nursing research uses it to il- Therapeutic touch provides another example of luminate the nature of the human-environmental such pandimensional awareness. Both participants ﬁeld change process and its many unpredictable often share similar experiences during therapeutic potentials. Higher fre- vu, and clairvoyance become normal rather than quency ﬁeld patterns that manifest growing diver- paranormal experiences. Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings 165 thus encompasses paranormal events such as out- In a 1990 panel discussion among Rogers and of-body and apparitional experiences. She cited ﬁve other theorists, Rogers maintained that “[o]ur Margeneau’s discussion in “Science, Creativity, and primary concern. Our job is better health, and people do world: “It is our human lot to look at the four- better making their own choices. She was an advocate for slit only opens at the time of death, you see more people’s rights to make their own informed choices than a segmented three-dimensional slice of the in the belief that this would improve well-being. In four-dimensional universe” (cited in McEvoy, 1990, yet another panel discussion in 1991, Rogers ex- p. Death itself is a transition, not an end, a plained that greater diversity necessitates “services manifestation of increasing diversity as energy that are far more individualized than we have ever ﬁelds transform. Rogers’ third theory, Rhythmical Correlates of Rogers consistently identiﬁed the need for indi- Change, was changed to “Manifestations of Field vidualized, community-based health services in- Patterning in Unitary Human Beings,” discussed corporating noninvasive modalities. Here Rogers suggested that evolution is an examples from those currently in use, such as ther- irreducible, nonlinear process characterized by in- apeutic touch, meditation, imagery, humor, and creasing diversity of ﬁeld patterning. She offered laughter, while stating her belief that new ones will some manifestations of this relative diversity, in- emerge out of the evolution toward spacekind cluding the rhythms of motion, time experience, (Rogers, 1994b). The principles of homeodynamics and sleeping-waking, encouraging others to suggest provide a way to understand the process of human- further examples. The next part of this chapter cov- environmental change, paving the way for Rogerian ers Rogerian science-based practice and research in theory-based practice. Rogers maintained that both qualitative Nurses must use “nursing knowledge in and quantitative research methods were non-invasive ways in a direct effort to appropriate for Rogerian science–based promote well-being. She said that nurses must use “nursing knowledge in non-invasive ways in a direct effort to promote well-being” (Rogers, 1994a, p. This focus gives Rogerian science–based research, with the nature of nurses a central role in health care rather than the question and the phenomena under investiga- medical care. Rogers urged Pattern manifestations have provided a com- nurses to develop autonomous, community-based mon research focus, highlighting the need for tools nursing centers. Some comments on the theoretical basis to measure awareness of the inﬁnite wholeness of of nursing practice. For public safety: Higher education’s re- Pattern Scale explores diverse pattern changes and sponsibility for professional education in nursing. New York: oped the Person-Environment Participation Scale American Nurses’ Association. Regional planning for graduate education Currently, researchers are using Rogerian tools in nursing. Proceedings of the National Committee of Deans of Schools of Nursing having accredited graduate programs in such as those described, developing new Rogerian nursing. Yesterday a nurse—today a manager— daily as nurses apply the knowledge gained through what now? Nurses’ expanding role and other eu- been eagerly taken up by a community of commit- phemisms. The family coping with a surgical crisis: Analysis and application of Rogers’ theory of nursing. Notes on nursing: science postulates a pandimensional universe of What it is, and what it is not (Commemorative edition, pp. The science of unitary human beings: tive, increasingly diverse, creative, and unpre- Current perspectives. The human and environ- that practice and research methods must be consis- mental ﬁelds are inseparable, so one cannot “come tent with the Science of Unitary Human Beings in between. Therefore, inconsistent with Rogers’ principle of helicy: that Rogerian practice and research methods must be expected outcomes infer predictability.
Some diuretics have additional distinct Unwanted effects therapeutic roles because of additional effects on the kidney As a consequence of increased urinary elimination of bicarbon- (e discount tadora 20mg online erectile dysfunction condom. They act from within the tubular fluid to Diuretics inhibit a co-transporter in the thick ascending limb of the Diuretics are classed by their site of action proven 20mg tadora erectile dysfunction japan. They cause a large effect and are used especially It is 95% bound to plasma protein and elimination is mainly in heart failure and oedematous states cheap 20mg tadora erectile dysfunction doctor toronto. These drugs are sometimes the renal Na K 2Cl cotransport mechanism, as opposed to combined with thiazide or loop diuretics to prevent hypokalaemia. They are weak diuretic insensitivity in nephrotic syndrome, where heavy 3 diuretics, cause metabolic acidosis and are used to treat albuminuria results in binding of furosemide to albumin glaucoma, rather than for their action on the kidney. Hypokalaemia – inhibition of K reabsorption in the loop reduced filtered load of this ion, so less bicarbonate is available of Henle and increased delivery of Na to the distal for reabsorption from proximal tubular fluid. The diuretic nephron (where it can be exchanged for K ) results in effect of acetazolamide is therefore self-limiting. Otoxicity with hearing loss is associated with excessive Hypersensitivity reactions and blood dyscrasias are a problem, peak plasma concentrations caused by too rapid as with other sulphonamides. It may be related to inhibition of Na K 2Cl cotransporter in the ear, which is involved in the formation of endolymph. Metabolic alkalosis – the increased water and chloride excretion caused by loop diuretics results in contraction Uses alkalosis. Furosemide is also useful in patients with chronic renal failure who are suffering from fluid overload Drug interactions and/or hypertension. Large doses may be needed to produce Loop diuretics increase the nephrotoxicity of first-generation diuresis in patients with severe renal impairment. Lithium reabsorption is reduced by loop diuret- times produces diuresis, and may prevent the development of ics and the dose of lithium carbonate often needs to be established failure, although this is difficult to prove. This is exploited in the treatment of hyper- calcaemia when furosemide is given after volume replacement with 0. The presence of a substantial aldosterone: spironolactone, eplerenone; quantity of a poorly absorbable solute opposes this, because as 2. Na /K exchange antagonists that do not compete with water is reabsorbed the concentration and hence the osmotic aldosterone: amiloride, triamterene. Mannitol is poorly absorbed from the intes- ful when there is hyperaldosteronism, whether primary tine and is given intravenously in gram quantities. Unlike other diuretics, osmotic diuretics increase the plasma in cirrhosis with ascites). High doses of spironolactone causes volume (by increasing the entry of water to the circulation as a gynaecomastia and breast tenderness in men and menstrual result of increasing intravascular osmolarity), so they are unsuit- irregularity in women – oestrogenic side effects. Eplerenone is able for the treatment of most causes of oedema, especially car- more selective and lacks these oestrogenic effects. It is possible that, if used early in the course of more expensive but has been shown to improve survival fol- incipient acute renal failure, osmotic diuretics may stave off the lowing myocardial infarction (Chapter 29). Osmotic diuretics are mainly used for reasons uncon- combination tablets with loop or thiazide diuretics as a means nected with their ability to cause diuresis. Hypokalaemia is important if drugs enter cells or some anatomical areas, such as the eye and brain, such as digoxin (Chapters 31 and 32) or sotalol (Chapter 32) they cause water to leave cells down the osmotic gradient. This are co-prescribed, because their toxicity is increased by ‘dehydrating’ action is used in two circumstances: hypokalaemia. Their main diuretic salt and water overload, but occurs when antidiuretic hor- action is exerted on the proximal tubule. Antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin) by the posterior pituitary, which results in secretion results in a concentrated urine, while continued the formation of a small volume of concentrated urine. The most tion of the plasma, which becomes hypo-osmolar and hypo- physiologically important actions of vasopressin, including its natraemic. The plasma volume is slightly increased and antidiuretic effect, are mediated by V2-receptors which are cou- urinary sodium loss continues. Consequently, water leaves the collecting ducts pas- corrected gradually by restricting fluid intake. This does not sively down its osmotic gradient from tubular fluid (which is cause thirst (because the plasma is hypo-osmolar), but may hypotonic at the beginning of the distal tubule) into the highly not be well tolerated because of habit. This process results in the hyponatraemia to levels greater than 125mmol/L is poten- formation of a small volume of highly concentrated urine tially harmful and is associated with central pontine myelino- under the influence of vasopressin. Control of plasma osmolarity via thirst fails when a patient is Demeclocycline inhibits adenylyl cyclase and renders the denied oral fluid, usually because of surgery (‘nil by mouth’). An isotonic (5%) solution of glucose is used in these cir- plasma urea levels and can produce deterioration of renal func- cumstances, as the glucose is rapidly metabolized to carbon tion and increased loss of sodium in the urine. Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon disorder in which Volume depletion is seldom treated with drugs. The same is Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is sometimes drug induced, true of diabetic ketoacidosis, where the critical life-saving inter- lithium being a common cause. Severe nephrogenic diabetes vention is the rapid infusion of large volumes of isotonic saline, insipidus is a rare X-linked disease caused by a mutation in the as well as insulin (Chapter 37). In such cases, exogenous vasopressin or due to acute and rapid blood loss, the appropriate fluid with desmopressin (see below) is ineffective. In some situations, particularly when azide diuretics (see above) reduce polyuria in nephrogenic dia- hypoalbuminaemia and oedema coexist with acute blood vol- betes insipidus by reducing the hypotonicity of fluid entering ume depletion, infusion of solutions of high-molecular-weight the distal tubule, and are combined with mild salt restriction. Ana- Dehydration is not a problem in diabetes insipidus pro- phylactoid reactions are an unusual but severe adverse effect of vided the patient has access to water, because increasing such treatment. Lactate is metabolized aerobically with the pro- plasma osmolality stimulates thirst. The consequent polydip- duction of bicarbonate and Ringer’s lactate solution is used to sia prevents dehydration and hypernatraemia. Bicarbonate-containing solu- patients with diabetes insipidus are at greatly increased risk of tions for i. Diet can be supplemented by foods Desmopressin is also used for nocturnal enuresis in with a high potassium content, such as fruit and vegetables children over seven years old, and intravenously in patients (bananas and tomatoes are rich in potassium ions). Intravenous with von Willebrand’s disease before undergoing elective potassium salts are usually given as potassium chloride. The main danger associated with intravenous potassium is hyperkalaemia, which can cause cardiac arrest. Potassium Key points chloride has the dubious distinction of causing the highest fre- Volume depletion quency of fatal adverse reactions. Potassium chloride solution is infused at a maximum rate of 10mmol/hour unless there is • Volume depletion can be caused by loss of blood or severe depletion, when 20mmol/hour can be given with elec- other body fluids (e. Potassium chloride for intravenous crystalloid or blood in the case of haemorrhage. Addison’s disease) or of prediluted fluid); strong potassium solutions (the most dan- water (e. Potassium-retaining diuretics are better tolerated than oral potassium supplements.
Moreover 20mg tadora sale erectile dysfunction under 35, case studies order tadora 20mg with amex impotence problems, by their very nature purchase tadora on line erectile dysfunction shake drink, do not permit the researcher to draw any conclu- Case study methodologies sions as to causality. In a conventional experiment, the researcher usually has one or more specific hypotheses Research procedures that focuses on a particular individual or group. Case studies do not permit careful control, thus it is impossible to identify a specific A case study (or case history) consists of an inten- causal association. Information may be obtained The difficulty of drawing causal inferences from in- by means of careful observation, interviews, psychologi- dividual case studies is further illustrated by the case of cal tests, or archival records. Genie was a 13-year-old girl who had been griev- ful when the researcher is starting to investigate a new ously neglected by her parents for most of her child- area in which there is little information available. From the age of 18 months she was confined to a studies are a rich source of ideas and hypotheses for fu- small room and denied any opportunity for social inter- ture research. In other words, an inabili- The critical period hypothesis maintained that a child’s ty to speak should be accompanied by an inability to ability to learn its native language effectively ends at the comprehend speech. Placed in a nurtur- had normal and complete understanding of spoken lan- ing environment,would Genie learn to speak? After several central to Freud’s concept of psychoanalysis,but he re- years, Genie was able to use words to convey some of placed hypnosis with free association. While this case is support- to the therapeutic release of emotions and tensions, al- ive of the critical period hypothesis, crucial information though not necessarily unconscious ones such as Freud is missing from the picture. Certain types of therapy in particular, such was born with mental deficits that might have prevented as psychodrama and primal scream therapy, have normal language development,even in the absence of stressed the healing potential of cathartic experiences. See also Repression Because of their very narrow focus, case studies can sometimes be very misleading. John was a normal baby Further Reading whose penis was burned beyond repair due to a surgical Jenson, Jean C. His doctors persuaded John’s parents Using Regression Therapy to Overcome the Effects of to have him undergo sex reassignment. The John/Joan story was heralded as an Cathexis important demonstration of the influence of social fac- tors in determining gender identity. By age 14, howev- In classic psychoanalysis, the investment of psy- chic energy in a person or object connected with er, Joan suspected that she was a boy. Eventually, Joan underwent plastic surgery and The English word for cathexis—which replaces the was given male hormone treatments. Today, John is mar- German besetzung—is derived from the Greek word for ried and reasonably well adjusted. It also shows us how risky it is to electrical charge, the psychic energy of the id is bound to make sweeping generalizations based on observations of a selection of objects. Moore When a cathected object becomes a source of con- flict, as parents do during the Oedipal stage, anti-cathex- Further Reading es redirect all thoughts about the object to the uncon- Christensen, L. Freud believed that most personality processes are regulated by cathexes and anti-cathexes. He considered Catharsis anti-cathexes as an internal form of frustration, parallel- The release of repressed psychic energy. In the case of anti-cathexis, this frustration is The term catharsis originated from the Greek word provided internally by one’s own psychic mechanisms. In psycholo- However, it cannot occur until one has experienced ex- gy, the term was first employed by Sigmund Freud’s col- ternal frustration, generally in the form of parental disci- league Josef Breuer (1842-1925), who developed a pline. Having been subjected to external controls, one “cathartic” treatment for persons suffering from hysteri- becomes able to develop inner ones. While under hypnosis, Breuer’s patients were able to recall traumatic Cathexes are involved in the repression of memo- experiences, and through the process of expressing the ries, which can be recalled either by weakening the anti- original emotions that had been repressed and forgotten, cathexis or strengthening the cathexis. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psy- ences and the application of scientific knowledge to cre- chological Works of Sigmund Freud. Ultimately, Cattell adopted the practice of testing a New York: Human Sciences Press, 1989. He was disappointed to find that, not only 1860-1944 did sensory performance fail to relate to academic suc- American pioneer in psychological research tech- cess, the different sensory measures did not even corre- niques and founder of a psychological testing com- late with one another. James McKeen Cattell developed an approach to Even though Cattell’s research on intelligence was psychological research that continues to dominate the unsuccessful, he nonetheless exerted a dramatic influ- field of psychology today. During his ca- years, most research focused on the sensory responses of reer at Columbia University, more students earned single individuals studied in depth because Wilhelm doctorates in psychology with him than with any other Wundt (1832-1920), the first experimental psychologist, psychologist. For example, he founded perspective diverged greatly from Wundt’s, and Cattell the journal Psychological Review with another promi- developed techniques that allowed him to study groups nent psychologist, J. Mark Baldwin (1861-1934), then of people and the individual differences among them. He traveled to the tell also helped start the American Association for the University of Göttingen to study with the philosopher Advancement of Science, one of the premier scientific Rudolf Hermann Lotze (1817-1881) and later with organizations in America today. Stanley Hall ingly, as his editing and publishing increased, his re- (1844-1924), one of America’s most famous psycholo- search diminished. Apparently, Cattell’s relationship with Hall was less than positive, and Cattell did not complete his doc- Cattell left the academic world in 1917 when Co- toral work at that time. When he was with Hall, howev- lumbia University dismissed him because of his unpopu- er, Cattell developed an interest in studying psychologi- lar opposition to sending draftees into battle in the first cal processes. He sued the University for libel and won $40,000 in court, but he did not return to the institution. Subsequently, he returned to Leipzig and earned his Instead, he attempted further application of psychologi- doctorate with Wundt, although his correspondence with cal testing when he founded the Psychological Corpora- his parents revealed that Cattell did not hold Wundt in tion, a company organized to promote commercial psy- high esteem as a scientist. His entrepreneurial abilities failed him ters also depict Cattell as arrogant, self-confident, and in this endeavor, however; the company earned only disrespectful of others. After he left, the or- proved on existing psychological instrumentation and in- ganization began to prosper, and today, the Psychologi- vented new ways to study psychological processes. Cattell contin- After leaving Germany, Cattell taught briefly in the ued his work as a spokesperson for applied psychology United States, then traveled to England and worked with until his death. Raymond Bernard Cattell 1905-1998 American psychologist who designed personality and intelligence tests and espoused controversial theories of eugenics. In a career spanning over half a century he wrote more than 50 books and 500 research articles, and his contributions to personality and intelligence testing are widely regarded as invaluable. Yet some of his theories about natural selection, particularly as put forth in a philos- ophy known as Beyondism, were attacked as racist and caused a bitter controversy only months before his death. Cattell was born in Hilltop, England, on March 20, Raymond Cattell (Archives of the History of American 1905. He attended the University of London, where he received his undergraduate degree in chemistry in 1924 and his Ph. He Cattell retired from the University of Illinois in 1973 taught briefly and worked at a psychology clinic until and after five years in Colorado moved to Hawaii. There, 1937, when he moved to the United States to take a teach- he accepted a part-time position at the University of ing position at Columbia University.